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By Christian Puff

Biosystematic reports at the Rubiaceae have a protracted culture on the Institute of Botany in Vienna. inside this kinfolk the Anthospermeae, and particularly its African and Madagascan individuals, are of specific curiosity due to numerous features of their evolution: I) Perfection of anemophily inside an differently approximately solely zoophilous relatives; 2) transitions from hermaphrodity to polygamy and eventually dioecy; three) differentiation from huge and long-lived shrubs to short-lived herbs; four) adaptive radiation from humid to seasonally dry, fire-exposed and xeric habitats. even though, morphological range associated with sexual differentia­ tion, modificatory plasticity, and eco-geographical polymorphism have for a very long time hampered our realizing of the relationships between those African Anthospermeae. hence, it used to be important to place designated emphasis on box observations and to hold out various experiments with cultivated vegetation as well as the research of a huge herbarium fabric. the writer, consequently, conducted large box paintings, frequently below very hostile stipulations, and coated so much African nations from Ethiopia to Southern Africa and two times visited Madagascar. during this method a mess of knowledge used to be collected at the workforce in appreciate to germination and development shape, vegetative and reproductive morphology, anatomy and biology, embryology, karyology, crossing relationships, phytochemistry, distribu­ tion and ecology, etc.

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Additional resources for A Biosystematic Study of the African and Madagascan Rubiaceae-Anthospermeae

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Also playa role. Such dark, "resiniferous" excretions are entirely lacking in Carpacoce. SOLEREDER (1893) recorded "resiniferous, branched cells, often united in groups or series" in the mesophyll of Phyllis nobla leaves, but not in the leaves of any of the other Anthospermeae he investigated (Nertera, Coprosma, Pomax). Similar dark excretions also occur in the stems (outside the vascular Fig. 23. SEMgraphs of critical point dried sectioned leaves of Anthospermum. a A . aethiopicum (PUFF 790712-3/1).

True subshrubs occur in a few Anthospermum species and, perhaps, some populations of Carpacoce spermacocea (normally ± dwarf shrubby) 1. 1. 2. Habit and Growth Form Analyses 29 A. paniculatum, for example, has shoots which terminate in a closed inflorescence (Fig. 29 b). Innovation takes place from below the inflorescence. The vegetative, woody body is never extensive and some plants are perhaps better classified as subshrubs rather than (proper) dwarf shrubs. Also the growth form of A. esterhuysenianum approaches that of a subshrub.

Acerosa (PUFF 800920-3/ 1). c G. circaeoides (PUFF 781029-3/ 1). d C. spermacocea subsp. spermacocea (PUFF 781228-3/ 1). e C. / C. burchellii (ESTERHUYSEN 20092). g-h C. scabra subsp. scabra, g PUFF 800914-6/1, h ESTERHUYSEN 10961 . - b-d, g critical point dried, all others herbarium material. All x 700 4. Leaves 49 Fig. 20. Leaf sections and upper epidermis of Anthospermum. ibityense (PUFF 800730-1/2). b A. bicorne (PUFF 8009\3-4/2). c A. dregei subsp. dregei (PUFF 780810-211) . d A. pachyrrhizum (PUFF 810930-211).

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