Download A Closer Look at Genes and Genetic Engineering (Introduction by Michael Anderson PDF

By Michael Anderson

Even supposing we frequently seek social and old records for clues to our previous, organic records possibly carry crucial facts of our background. The characteristics we inherit from our mom and dad and cross directly to our offspring are encoded in our genes and DNA and exhibit a lot approximately either our origins and our destiny. This quantity examines the attention-grabbing biology at the back of genetics and genetic issues. It additionally rigorously considers the foundations of gene manipulation and genetic engineering whose power to revolutionize drugs, undefined, and agriculture is turning into more and more glaring with each new discovery.

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Autosomal recessive disorders occur when two copies of a mutant recessive gene are inherited. Cystic fibrosis is an autosomal recessive disease in which a single mutation causes thick mucus to build up in the lungs and airways, producing severe respiratory problems. In Wilson’s disease, a defect that impairs copper metabolism causes toxic levels of copper to accumulate in the liver and brain. Inborn errors of metabolism are autosomal recessive disorders caused by mutations in genes coding for metabolic enzymes.

In some instances this has no major effect; however, in many cases the change causes severe problems, ranging from birth defects to cancer or death. 43 C hapter 3 Genetic Disorders D iseases that arise from abnormalities in the genetic material are termed genetic disorders. Many genetic disorders are apparent during infancy; others are not evident until adulthood. Genetic disorders may result from mutations, or changes in the DNA sequence, of a single gene or defects in an entire chromosome. Most genetic disorders are multifactorial, resulting from the interaction of several genes coupled with environmental factors.

Special concern has been focused on the use of microorganisms in recombinant technology, with the worry that some genetic changes could introduce unfavorable and possibly dangerous traits, such as antibiotic resistance or toxin production, into microbes that were previously free of these. Smith revealed that one type of restriction enzyme cut DNA at very specific points in the molecule. This enzyme was named type II restriction enzyme to distinguish it from type I and type III enzymes, which cut DNA in a different manner.

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