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By John H. Holland

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Extra resources for Adaptation in Natural and Artificial Systems: An Introductory Analysis with Applications to Biology, Control, and Artificial Intelligence

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0 Otherwise Thusthearray would be assignedthe quadrupleof detectorvalues( 1, 1,0,0). ( Notethe largereduction in the numberof situationsto be evaluated- thereare 211~ 64,(MX ) differentarraysbut 2' 16 detector value . {S) whereeachWicanbe chosenfrom the set { - 2, - 1,0,1,2} . A 4- by-4 array S is ~~ ~ oo to c+ if f (S) ~ i , otherwiseit is assignedto C- . } is to be invokedat choicepoint J each of the threearraysS;aSS ;. is submittedto f. , S;. is assigned to c+ the correspondingcorridor is followed, otherwisea corridor is chosenat random of the lack (and, presumably , the adaptiveplan is invokedto modify the weiahtsbecause of a uniqueprediction).

The genetic operators provide for the preservation of coadapted sets by inducing a " linkage" betweenadjacent alleles- the closer together a set of alleles is on a chromosome, the more immune it is to separation by the genetic operators. Thus a more realistic set of adaptive plans provides for emphasis of coadapted sets through reproduction, combined with application of the genetic operators to provide new candidates and test establishedcoadaptedsetsin new combinations and contexts. A ). The result is a population ' (1( t) with certain chromosomesemphasized, along with the coadapted sets contain.

Adaptation in Natural and Artificial Systems 8 , the strategic options open to the opponent ; in simple cases, the set of pure . strategies ' " " a x, rankingof plansusingthecumulativepayoff functions , the gambler s ruin criterionbeingan example . 4 . SEARCHES , PATTERN RECOGNITION, AND STATISTICAL INFERENCE Searches occur as the principal element in most problem-solving and goal-attainment attempts, from maze-running through resourceallocation to very complicated planning situations in business, government, and research.

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