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By H. Ruthenberg

In quantity 2 of the "Afrika-Studien" an appraisal of the rural improvement coverage in Tanganyika (now Tanzania) from 1950 to 1963 was once made. This document is a continuation of the paintings in East Africa, with the emphasis mendacity on a tentative quantitative review of prices and advantages of smallholder improvement. There are few nations in Africa south of the Sahara the place as many and as a variety of measures for the advertising of small­ holder farming were attempted as continuously and intensively as in Kenya. particularly the "Swynnerton Plan" ended in the employment of considerable sums in African farming. many of the ways were hugely good fortune­ ful, others now not. it's the objective of this report back to tell approximately goals and associations, tools and problems, expenses and merits. Prof. Dr. EMIL WOERMANN Institut fiir landwirtschaftliche Betriebs- und Landarbeitslehre, Gottingen Acknowledgements As ordinary with studies of this nature, my major debt is to a lot of smallholders, settlers, scheme managers, Agricultural officials and Instruc­ tors who so willingly mentioned their issues of me and therefore supplied the knowledge on which this document is predicated. i'm such a lot thankful for the aid rendered via many of the Departments of the Kenya executive. A debt of gratitude is owed really to the Fritz Thyssen origin, Cologne, which supplied the cash and to the Ifo-Institute, Munich, which supplies the institutional framework for German monetary learn paintings in East Africa. most useful suggestion and feedback was once given through Mr. ]. D.

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These rules and by-laws were to ensure that the soil was conserved and that good husbandry of cash crops was exercised. Those who violated the by-laws were reprimanded and, in a few cases, prosecuted and fined. fl) Approach to the Location and its Land Tenure The British agricultural administration, after a decade of frustration, came to the conclusion that land tenure reform is a prerequisite to any sustained smallholder development. Wherever possible, either with pressure - as in Central Province during and after the Emergency - or with friendly persuasion - as among the Kisii and several Kalenjin tribes, where enclosures have been popular for several decades already - land consolidation, registration or enclosures were pushed ahead, followed by an intensification of the production and marketing development services.

Finally the holding is registered - if necessary consolidated - and becomes a privately owned piece of land which can be sold or used as security for a loan. r) Approach to Activities There was and still is no compulsion to grow certain crops in Kenya, a procedure one might expect in a country where the administration is the active force behind agricultural development. However, those who wanted to or could be persuaded to grow coffee, tea and pyrethrum, or to keep grade cattle, had to follow by-laws about husbandry standards laid down by the Agricultural District Council.

Experience shows that a significant proportion of the smallholders are money-conscious. Apparently, there is always a certain number of farmers who are willing to adopt profitable innovations. The introduction of proper husbandry, however, which is the key to sustained economic success, proved to be a much more difficult proposition. New crops are usually better husbanded than traditional ones because the farmer attaches great hopes to the economic return of the innovation. But attention usually slips after an initial push.

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