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By R.C. Hine, K.A. Ingersent, A.J. Rayner

Agriculture used to be a huge merchandise at the schedule of the Uruguay around of multilateral exchange negotiations below the auspices of the final contract on price lists and alternate (GATT), introduced in 1986. during this particularly commissioned quantity the nationwide positions on agriculture taken up through the key avid gamers throughout the process those negotiations are set out and analysed, kingdom by means of state, through a workforce of across the world well known specialists. The editors have chosen and ordered the reports to supply a coherent overview and synthesis of the most concerns and components of controversy raised by means of the negotiations. exam of the explanations for the maintaining of other nationwide views at the factor of agricultural coverage and alternate reform is helping to give an explanation for why attaining overseas contract during this sector of the GATT negotiations has been so elusive.

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There arc actually two problems here. First, not all CPs are willing to have GAIT adjudicate on disputes; second, both parties to a dispute have to agree to a Panel being set up and have to accept its findings for it to be followed up; it is easy to see then why the rulings of the GATT panels can be and have been ignored! As the jurisdiction of GAIT widens to embrace new issues, the need for an efficient and effective dispute-settlement mechanism becomes increasingly important. New Issues Three issues are completely new to the GAIT negotiations: Trade related intellectual property rights (TRIPs), Trade related investment measures (TRIMs) and Trade in services.

For a fuller explanation of this point, see: GECD 'Agricultural Policies, Markets and Trade', Paris, 1991, p. 137. 2(c)(i) of the GATT stipulates that the government programme must include supply control. 2(c)(i) eventually led to the United States being granted a waiver to its commitments under those provisions. The celebrated Section 22 waiver was granted to the United States in 1955, as part of a wider revision of the General Agreement effected in that year. Although, in the strict letter of of the law, the 1955 waiver applied only to the United States, after it had been granted other GAIT signatories understandably felt free to operate quantitative restrictions on imports of agricultural products without domestic supply control.

There can be little doubt, however, that some elements in US agriculture, alarmed by adverse public sentiment and concern over the costs of current farm programmes, have for some time been in favour of substantial policy reforms. The political opportunity arose in the Uruguay Round to attempt such reforms. Ambassador Yeutter, among others, was centre stage both in framing the proposals and in conducting the actual negotiations. Most knowledgeable policymakers agree on the disease; only the technical remedy was at issue.

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