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By William L. Leap

Examines the variety of English in American Indian speech groups.

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And once Isleta students complete their elementary schooling at the on-reservation day school, they attend junior and senior high school at off-reservation, county-operated facilities where neighboring Hispanics and other non-Indian age-mates are also enrolled. The presence of English and Spanish on this reservation notwithstanding, a significant portion of the pueblo's on-reservation residents still speak Isletan Tiwa (the ancestral language of this community). This is the language of tribal government (even when speaking in the presence of outsiders) and the language of the pueblo's ceremonial life.

This 210,000-acre reservation extends from the crest of the Manzanos mountain range across the Rio Grande to the border shared with the Laguna Indian reservation, some fifty miles to the west of the river. As at Northern Ute, there are several Indian settlements on this reservation. But there are no non-Indian settlements there, and non-Indian individuals are permitted to live at Isleta only if married to a member of the tribe. One of the Indian settlements, called the village in Isleta English, is considered by Isleta tradition to be the oldest settlement on the reservation; it was established long before the Spanish first entered the Rio Grande valley in the late sixteenth century.

Case Study 4: Colorado River Tribes (Southwestern Arizona, Southeastern California) I conclude these profiles of on-reservation/rural Indian speech communities by describing conditions on the Colorado River reservation, located on the border between Arizona and California. 12 This reservation is of interest because the resident population contains persons from four distinct and traditionally unrelated tribal groupsMohave, Chemehuevi, Hopi, and Navajo. S. government established the reservation for the Mohave and Chemehuevi in < previous page page_41 next page > < previous page page_42 next page > Page 42 1865; Navajo and Hopi families moved there after World War II, under an incentive program for veterans operated by the Bureau of Indian Affairs.

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