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By Alison R. Bernstein

The influence of global conflict II on Indian affairs used to be extra profound and lasting than that of the other occasion or policy--including Roosevelt’s Indian New Deal and efforts to terminate federal accountability for tribes below Eisenhower. concentrating on the interval from 1941 to 1947, Alison R. Bernstein explains why termination and tribal self-determination have been logical result of the Indians’ international conflict II studies in conflict and at the domestic entrance.

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They looked to the land to provide these necessities and sustain their ever-increasing numbers. "36 Among the farmers of the rural South and Midwest, there had always been a flow of surplus population into the cities. But this phenomenon had not been as true for the Indians. There are no national statistics revealing the number of Indians who relocated to urban areas before 1945, but lack of educational opportunities coupled with strong tribal ties made Indians far less mobile than either rural whites or blacks.

The "Indian New Deal" had three chief objectives: the economic development of the reservation and the Indian land base, the organization of Indian tribes to manage their own affairs, and the establishment of civil and cultural rights for Indians. 11 The proposed legislation, named for its sponsors Senator Burton K. "12 The Wheeler-Howard measure contained six sections. Three sections outlined new land policies by proposing an end to allotment, appropriations to purchase new lands, and a revolving agricultural credit fund from which tribes could borrow for land development.

Indians and the Draft 22 3. The "Chiefs" Go to War 40 4. The Indian Home Front: A Study in Changes 64 5. The BIA Under Attack: An Agency in Search of a Function 89 6. Indians Enter the Political Mainstream 112 7. Postwar Uncertainties: The Warriors and War Workers Return 131 8. The War's Aftermath: Turning American Indians into Indian Americans 159 Notes 177 Bibliography 225 Index Page ix Illustrations Banning the Swastika, 1940 20 Papago Indians sign up for the draft 25 Members of the Iroquois Confederacy resist draft 29 Menominee chief, 1943 45 Indian women Marine Corps reservists 47 Private, First Class, Ira Hayes, at Paratroop School 51 Mount Suribachi, Iwo Jima, flag raisers 52 North Carolina Cherokee mother buying war bonds, 1944 69 Commissioner John Collier interviewed on the Indian war effort 97 Navajo family with their sailor son 135 A "Mercy Caravan" reaches needy Indians at Gallup, New Mexico, 1947 172 Page xi Preface Beginning in 1969 with the publication of Vine Deloria's Custer Died for Your Sins, there has been a continuing stream of scholarly monographs and popular accounts detailing the history of American Indians.

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