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By Thomas A. Britten

In the course of global struggle I, approximately 10,000 local american citizens both enlisted or have been drafted into the yank Expeditionary strength. 3 comparable questions are tested extensive for the 1st time during this e-book: What have been the battlefield reports of local americans? How did racial and cultural stereotypes approximately Indians have an effect on their tasks? Did their wartime contributions result in alterations in federal Indian coverage or their average of living?Many American Indians wonderful themselves struggling with at the Western entrance. And in comparison to black and Mexican American infantrymen, Indians loved close to common recognize while in uniform. To have a good time their patriotism in the course of and after the conflict, Indians may perhaps even practice quite a few conventional ceremonies differently proscribed. either in strive against and of their help roles at the homefront, together with volunteer contributions through Indian girls, local americans was hoping their efforts may lead to a extra energetic program of democracy. however the Bureau of Indian Affairs persisted to chop future health and education schemes and to suppress Indian cultures. "This is a main booklet and an important contribution to twentieth-century Indian history."--Professor Donald L. Parman

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Some army posts offered Indian troops routine instruction in the English language, but a few hours of instruction per week proved inadequate. Many officers grew impatient when Indian soldiers failed to execute commands. Some accused the Native Americans of feigning misunderstanding so as to avoid performing tasks they found distasteful or unnecessary (such as saluting). When an Indian soldier failed to obey an order he found himself in the guardhouse, pulling kitchen patrol, or perhaps cleaning out the post stables.

In pursuance of this plan, in 1864 Curtis commissioned Frank North to go to the Pawnee agency and organize a troop of scouts. Once among the Pawnees, North enjoyed great success and within a short time had recruited some one hundred men. 3 For the next thirteen years, North's "Pawnee Battalion," as it was called, served with a loyalty and distinction that inspired other western commanders to experiment with Indian scouts. Native American participation in the Civil War, the example of the Pawnee scouts, and the renewed threat of Indian uprisings in the West after 1865 encouraged military officials to regularize the use of Indian scouts and auxiliaries.

47 Despite its short duration, the venture of using all-Indian units in the regular army was not a complete disappointment, and an estimated 1,071 Native Americans had participated and gained useful knowledge and experiences. In his examination of the Brules in Troop L, Sixth Cavalry, Don Rickey has maintained that the Sioux veterans returned to their reservations with pride and many became leading men on the Rosebud reservation. " A few veterans later joined the Crow police force. In addition, Indian units served the army faithfully and performed a variety of important tasks.

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