By Alan Martin, Sam Harbison, Karen Beach, Peter Cole
A brand new variation of the UK's usual advent to the risks awarded by means of ionizing radiation and the equipment of security and control.
Read or Download An Introduction to Radiation Protection 6E PDF
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Additional info for An Introduction to Radiation Protection 6E
At present the contribution to the total exposure of members of the population from waste disposal is very low, about 1 μSv/year. 5 Atmospheric fall-out In the two decades after the Second World War, several countries undertook atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons. Much of the radioactivity generated by the detonations was injected into the stratosphere (at altitudes of 10–20 km) and distributed around the world by the atmospheric circulation, gradually falling out of the atmosphere onto the surface of the earth over a period of some years.
Respiration: method by which oxygen is taken into the lungs and carbon dioxide is eliminated. Digestive system converts food into a form suitable for the production of heat and energy and into molecules necessary for the growth and repair of tissues. Stages in radiation damage process: 1. Initial physical stage (c. 10−16 s) consisting of ionization and excitation of atoms and molecules. 2. Physicochemical stage (10−8–10−5 s) consisting of dissociation of ions and formation of free radicals. 3. Chemical stage (a few seconds) consisting of the interaction of free radicals with other molecules in the body.
In addition, gypsum, which arises as a by-product of phosphate processing, is widely used in building materials. 39 40 Natural and man-made radiation It is the responsibility of enterprises that extract, process or use NORM to establish by appropriate surveys and assessments whether the doses are likely to be of radiological signiﬁcance and, where necessary, to introduce adequate measures to ensure that exposures are kept as low as reasonably practicable. 5 RADIOACTIVITY IN THE BODY The ingestion and inhalation of naturally occurring radionuclides gives rise to a dose which varies considerably depending on the location, diet and habits of the individual concerned.