By C.K Maiti, G.A Armstrong
The main major characteristic of this paintings is that it combines 3 certain subject matters - expertise, equipment layout and simulation, and purposes - in a entire manner.
This e-book is meant to be used by way of senior undergraduate or first-year graduate scholars in utilized Physics, digital and electric Engineering, and fabrics Sciences, and as a reference for engineers and scientists considering semiconductor gadget examine and improvement for RF purposes.
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Extra resources for Applications of silicon-germanium heterostructure devices
Since silicon substrates are conductive, it is not practical to build high-quality passive elements on-chip. However, much of the cost in current RF systems using discrete components comes from the passive elements. 5, now gives the RF designers a rich environment to realize applications for the wireless marketplace. 8. SUMMARY This introductory chapter has described the evolution of SiGe technology from early materials research to its current established position in the marketplace. The evolution of bipolar technology has led to the development and application of a SiGe transistor through utilization of strained layers.
Pioneering studies in the mid1980s at AT&T Bell Laboratories, IBM Thomas J Watson Research Center and Daimler–Benz Research Laboratories, Germany, British Telecom, UK, Hitachi and NEC, Japan, among others, used molecular beam epitaxy to show that SiGe alloys could be bandgap-engineered controllably and successfully used to realize a host of novel electronic and photonic devices. MBE allows the fabrication of moderately defect-free heterojunctions. However, MBE not being a production tool, they are only used for demonstration devices.
When compared with SiGe technologies, the addition of carbon oﬀers a signiﬁcantly greater ﬂexibility in process design and a greater latitude in processing margins [54–56]. 9. Cut-oﬀ and maximum oscillation frequencies versus collector current for SiGeC HBTs. (After Osten H J et al 1999 IEEE BCTM Proc. 3. Possible applications of C-containing Si and SiGe ﬁlms. ) Material advantages Possible device applications Increase performance and process margins for HBTs Suppress transient enhanced diﬀusion of boron Reduce undoped SiGe spacers HBT Increase thickness, stability, Ge content of Si1−x Gex p-Channel FET, npn HBT Use strained-Si1−y Cy on Si instead of Si on relaxed buﬀer n-Channel FET, pnp HBT Design new buﬀer concepts with Si1−x−y Gex Cy Use the reduction of dislocation propagation Virtual substrates for hetero-FETs Strain symmetrization on Si Superlattices on Si(001) for optical applications grown pseudomorphically onto Si(001) and their applications have been comprehensively reviewed by Osten .