By Peter Oldham
The British military and her commonwealth Allies went to struggle in 1914 with little wisdom and adventure of making everlasting, shell evidence protecting buildings. a few masonry fortifications, equivalent to protective blockhouses in South Africa, have been equipped however the Royal Engineers of the military have been extra versed in uncomplicated transitority defenses appropriate for cellular battle. domestic defenses have been a restricted variety of forts round naval ports, and Martello Towers at the east coast. It was once thought of that the military was once particularly in a position to protect Britain’s coasts.
The Germans, nonetheless, as with the opposite continental international locations resembling France, Belgium, Italy, Holland, Poland, Austria, and so forth. were regularly renewing and updating border forts for a number of centuries. that they had additionally maintained fortification and siege parts in their armies, who have been skilled in designing and developing robust shelters. either German and French armies all started the struggle with a level of craftsmanship in what was once to develop into a static battle with little move. notwithstanding, via 1918 the British have been to surpass either enemy and her allies within the layout and building, with offer and logistics, of such shell evidence hide for troops and protective positions.
This e-book offers the historical past of improvement and innovation of concrete bunkers, tablet containers, blockhouses and basic concrete structures in the course of the First international battle. lots of those buildings – a few exhibiting visible symptoms of struggle harm - nonetheless exist in France and Belgium today.
All the prevailing constructions, with picture (except for a few that are impractical, due to dense vegetation,) are proven inside of. Many entries have modern maps exhibiting how they geared up right into a protective method, when for others the site should be pointed out from the textual content. GPS coordinates are given for every access, aside from a couple of that are on deepest land and the place privateness has been requested.
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Additional info for Armageddon's Walls: British Pill Boxes and Bunkers 1914–1918
Cotter won the VC in March 1916 for his role in the defence of a crater, despite appalling injuries. He organised his men and directed their fire even after losing his right leg at the knee and sustaining injuries in both arms. ⁷² As will be demonstrated later, Cotter’s Victoria Cross came at a crucial moment for the morale of the 6th Buffs. Although the use of so many pre-war Buffs officers and men created a semblance of continuity, at the same time a distinct shift in the social complexion of the regiment occurred.
Nicholson of the 7th Buffs experienced a similar New Army career as he moved from Second Lieutenant in the winter of 1914 to temporary commander in January 1916, and then second-in-command from the autumn of 1916. Close study of the Buffs has revealed a further factor that may have guaranteed the survival of the regimental ethos. As noted earlier, throughout the war the 1st, 6th, 7th, and 8th Buffs retained a core of pre-war Regular 1st and 2nd Buffs officers and NCOs by careful hoarding and cross posting.
As no hard medical evidence was demanded during the trial, questions can be asked about the way in which military law was implemented. But, as the most recent historians of British military executions Cathryn Corns and John Hughes-Wilson have noted, definitions of shellshock were still far from firm. ¹²⁴ 34 Officers and Men The final Buffs soldier to be executed was Private F. C. Butcher of the 7th Buffs in July 1918. Butcher had been found guilty of desertion and sentenced to death in June 1918, but his sentence was commuted to five years’ penal servitude which was suspended and under three-monthly review.