Download Astronomy. Understanding the Universe by Sherman Hollar PDF

By Sherman Hollar

Fathoming the boundlessness of house and the universe, we're instantly packed with interest approximately our personal origins and sweetness concerning the gadgets, lifestyles varieties, and subject that populate the cosmos. throughout the observations and paintings of astronomers over the years, now we have slowly been in a position to lessen the variety of unknowns and strengthen factors or theories for many of the celestial gadgets and phenomena we see. This space-traveling survey recounts the various significant discovery milestones within the box of astronomy and examines the instruments and methods at the moment utilized by astronomers to check the universe.

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Extra resources for Astronomy. Understanding the Universe

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VLA/NRAO SPECTROSCOPY: WHAT LIGHT TELLS ASTRONOMERS Stars give off a whole range of electromagnetic radiation. The kind of radiation is related to the temperature of the star: the higher the temperature of the star, the more energy it gives off and the more this energy is concentrated in high-frequency radiation. An instrument called a spectrograph can separate radiation into the different frequencies. The array of frequencies makes up the spectrum of the star. The color of a star is also an indication of its temperature.

This is called the Doppler effect. If the observer and the star are moving away from each other, the observer detects a shift to lower frequencies. If the star and the observer are approaching each other, the shift is to higher frequencies. A star’s color indicates its surface temperature. The Hubble Space Telescope captured this dazzling image of a star cloud in the constellation Sagittarius. Most of these stars are fairly faint and orange or red, which is how the sun would appear. The blue and green stars are hotter than the sun, while the bright-red stars are red giants, which are much cooler stars near the end of their lives.

The sun will eventually become a red giant. The Hubble Heritage Team (AURA/STScI/NASA) Astronomers know the normal spectrum-line frequencies for many chemicals. By comparing these known frequencies with those of the same set of lines in a star’s spectrum, astronomers can tell how fast the star is moving toward or away from Earth. Chapter 3 THE SOLAR SYSTEM The solar system consists of the Sun plus all the objects that orbit it. With more than 99 percent of the solar system’s total mass and a diameter more than 100 times that of Earth and 10 times that of Jupiter, the Sun is quite naturally the center of the system.

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