By Alan Clark
At the outbreak of battle in 1914, the armies of the western entrance quickly grew to become slowed down within the dust at Flanders. yet at the vast plains and forests of japanese Europe the 3 nice Empires - Russia, Germany and Austria-Hungary - grappled in a chain of battles related to hundreds of thousands of guys and thousands of miles of entrance. almost immediately after the outbreak of battle the Russian «steamroller» had lurched into Prussia in basic terms to be hurled again amind the marshes of Tannenberg. For the following 3 years the combating swung indeterminately backward and forward. This paintings describes the campaigns which provoked the downfall of 3 nice empires and left the realm replaced ceaselessly.
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Additional resources for Battles on the Eastern Front 1914-18: Suicide of the Empires
41 This war game scenario also assumed a significant German air defense capability, encompassing antiaircraft units with the Luftwaffe, the army, and the navy. In accordance with air defense doctrine, military planners divided flak and searchlight forces between the army and the air districts. The plan called for twenty-seven heavy flak batteries of between four and eight 88-mm guns and nine medium flak batteries of six 37-mm guns, as well as two searchlight batteries to support mobile army operations in the field.
Finally, Rüdel's remarks concerning the use of barrier fire procedures provided an unintended insight into the flak arm's absolute reliance on sound detectors for locating aircraft flying in or above the clouds. The reliance on aural detection procedures would prove to be a major weakness within the air defense force in the opening stages of the coming war. In the conclusion to his report, Rüdel declared that the commanders of the air defense units needed to master not only the regulations concerning their own systems but those of the fighter aircraft, as well.
Already in 1931, individual batteries participated in two-week-long training courses involving live fire exercises at the training range at Döberitz and Pillau. "104 Additionally, these batteries conducted firing exercises on the Schilling peninsula in the summer and fall of 1932. 105 The development plans assembled in 1932 by Felmy and Rüdel were important steps along the road to German rearmament. Germany's ground-based air defense forces admittedly were modest, but Rüdel and the members of his staff had sketched the broad outlines of the air defense force that would eventually enter the crucible of war in 1939.