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By James Freeman Steffe

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2 is very similar to the problem shown in Fig. 1, except point two is selected just prior to the discharge location of the pipe. In this application of the mechanical energy balance equation, a number of new considerations must be introduced: the Energy and Head Loss Calculations 41 velocity at the exit of the control volume is not zero because the fluid is still in the pipe; P1 = 1 atm (absolute pressure) but P2 > 1 atm (absolute pressure) and must be retained in the solution; the friction loss at the pipe exit is irrelevant because it is beyond the control volume; friction losses include three elbows.

3 examines the problem of finding rheological properties of ice cream mix from raw data obtained with a concentric cylinder viscometer. 3 Mixer Viscometry Concentric cylinder viscometers are excellent for characterizing the rheological behavior of fluids for the purpose of pipeline design and pump selection. Some fluids, however, cannot be properly tested in narrow gap viscometers because they have one or more of the following characteristics: • Particles too large for the gap causing added torque during testing.

Dividing the changes in energy per unit mass, expressed by Eq. 3) to Eq. 6), by g results in units of Joules per Newton. In the SI system, a Joule per Newton has the unit of length: meter. 39 Energy and Head Loss Calculations Hs is a function of the volumetric flow rate expressed in units of m3s-1 or gpm. Plotting the total system head versus volumetric flow rate gives the system curve required for the process. The velocity head (accounting for kinetic energy differences) is usually small and often ignored in head calculations.

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