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Extra info for Bonus 2 - Tips & Tricks to Save Energy (Malestrom)

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Shaft energy to drive compressor is about twice as much as the useful shaft output. Actually the shaft energy keeps circulating in the cycle as long as the turbine runs. The important comparison is the size of the output with the fuel input. For the simple-cycle gas turbine the output may run about 20% of the fuel input for certain pressure and temperature conditions at turbine inlet. This means 80% of the fuel energy is wasted. While the 20% thermal efficiency is not too bad, it can be improved by including additional heat recovery apparatus.

A schematic diagram showing the gauge pressure, vacuum pressure and the absolute pressure is given in Fig. 14. Mathematically : (i) Absolute pressure = Atmospheric pressure + Gauge pressure pabs. = patm. + pgauge. (ii) Vacuum pressure = Atmospheric pressure – Absolute pressure. Vacuum is defined as the absence of pressure. A perfect vacuum is obtained when absolute pressure is zero, at this instant molecular momentum is zero. pm5 34 ENGINEERING THERMODYNAMICS Atmospheric pressure is measured with the help of barometer.

Optical pyrometers. 1. Expansion Thermometers : The expansion thermometers make use of the differential expansion of two different substances. Thus in liquid-in-glass thermometers, it is the difference in expansion of liquid and the containing glass. And in bimetallic thermometers, the indication is due to the difference in expansion of the two solids. These thermometers are discussed below : (i) Liquid-in-glass thermometer. This is a very familiar type of thermometer. The mercury or other liquid fills the glass bulb and extends into the bore of the glass stem.