By J. Chamberlain (auth.), Barth Hoogstraten, Ian Burn, H. Julian G. Bloom (eds.)
This sequence at the therapy of melanoma is backed through the UICC. The editors and authors suppose strongly that extra standar dization in melanoma treatment is required on a world foundation. This, after all, is barely attainable if specialists from all international locations sign up for a joint coverage of creating their remedy designs to be had 'to training oncologists around the globe. present therapy of melanoma discusses all of the gear and strategies now in use in melanoma treatment. It covers every kind of melanoma, hence offering the reader with entire infor mation on melanoma administration. In fresh many years there was an important increase ment within the therapy of melanoma, and there's wish for even fur ther luck during this struggle. we're confident that this sequence might help us to make a concerted reaction to the problem of can cer. UICC therapy and Rehabilitation Programme Ismail Elsebai Chairman 1988 IX Preface With an issue as advanced and delicate as breast melanoma, the concept that of manufacturing a publication which displays all opinion at the subject is daunting.
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Additional info for Breast Cancer
A degree of elastosis is present in about 90% of invasive ductal and lobular carcinoma and is also commonly present in tubular tumors. It is much less common in other types of carcinoma. The direct relationship between elastosis and estrogen and progesterone receptors has been discussed above. Elastosis also seems to be more prominent in well-differentiated tumors, yet assessments of the degree of elastosis in the tumors did not reveal any demonstrable prognostic significance. Necrosis Varying degrees of necrosis were seen in 60% of invasive carcinomas in a series of 1539 patients.
In most of these cases the intraductal elements are few and located at the . edge of the tumor. In a few cases, a large part of the tumor (10%-90%) consists 19 Fig. 5. Invasive ductal carcinoma with areas of squamous metaplasia (arrows); H&E, x 63 of intraductal elements, and it has been suggested that the higher the proportion of these elements in a tumor, the less the incidence oflymph-node metastases and the better the prognosis. However, it has also been noted that tumors with extensive intraductal elements, defined as 25% or more of the whole tumor, have a higher incidence of local recurrence after treatment with lumpectomy and radiotherapy than tumors without such elements (24% vs 2% recurrence after 5 years).
Estrogen Receptors and Tumor Histology Estimation of estrogen receptor protein concentrations in breast carcinoma has been shown to be of value in planning the management and predicting the prognosis of the disease. In general, estrogen-receptor positive tumors are more likely to respond to hormonal therapy, and possibly they have a more favorable prognosis than tumors lacking these receptors. Between 55% and 65% of primary breast carcjnomas ar~ estrogen-receptor positive (having concentrations more than 10 fmol/mg cytosol protein), and the incidence of positive tumors is higher in postmenopausal than in premenopausal patients.