By Institute of Medicine, Board on Health Sciences Policy, Board on Health Care Services, Research Methodology, and Future Directions Committee on Breast Cancer and the Environment: The Scientific Evidence
Breast melanoma continues to be the most typical invasive melanoma between ladies. the first sufferers of breast melanoma are grownup girls who're drawing close or have reached menopause; ninety percentage of recent circumstances in U.S. ladies in 2009 have been clinically determined at age forty five or older. turning out to be wisdom of the complexity of breast melanoma prompted a transition in breast melanoma learn towards elucidating how exterior components may well impact the etiology of breast melanoma. Breast melanoma and the surroundings stories the present facts on a range of environmental probability elements for breast melanoma, considers gene-environment interactions in breast melanoma, and explores evidence-based activities that would lessen the chance of breast melanoma. The publication additionally recommends additional integrative examine into the weather of the biology of breast improvement and carcinogenesis, together with the effect of publicity to various environmental components in the course of capability home windows of susceptibility through the complete existence path, capability interventions to minimize probability, and higher instruments for assessing the carcinogenicity of environmental components. For a constrained set of threat components, facts means that motion will be taken in ways in which may perhaps decrease possibility for breast melanoma for plenty of girls: averting pointless clinical radiation all through lifestyles, keeping off using a few different types of postmenopausal hormone treatment, averting smoking, proscribing alcohol intake, expanding actual task, and minimizing weight achieve. Breast melanoma and the surroundings units a course and a spotlight for destiny learn efforts. The e-book can be of certain curiosity to clinical researchers, sufferer advocacy teams, and public future health execs.
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Extra info for Breast Cancer and the Environment: A Life Course Approach
Chemicals causing mammary gland tumors in animals signal new directions for epidemiology, chemicals testing, and risk assessment for breast cancer prevention. Cancer 109(12 Suppl):2635–2666. WCRF/AICR (World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research). 2007 Food, nutrition, physical activity, and the prevention of cancer: A global perspective. Washington, DC: AICR. Writing Group for the Women’s Health Initiative Investigators. 2002. Risks and benefits of estrogen plus progestin in healthy postmenopausal women: Principal results from the Women’s Health Initiative randomized controlled trial.
Breast Cancer and the Environment: A Life Course Approach SUMMARY S-11 interventions. Few intervention studies have investigated whether factors associated with increased postmenopausal risk, such as overweight or alcohol consumption, should be avoided completely, or whether reducing or eliminating the exposure later in adulthood will reduce the risk that might have accrued from exposure at younger ages. It is also difficult to judge what any individual woman’s change in risk might be. Moreover, much of the evidence on breast cancer risk factors has come from studies of postmenopausal breast cancer in white women, and it has pointed to a greater potential to reduce risk for estrogen receptor–positive (ER+) cancers than other types.
Support for these studies should include resources for the development of improved exposure assessment methods to quantify chemical and other environmental exposures potentially associated with the development of breast cancer. New Exposure Assessment Tools A life-course perspective on breast cancer suggests that critical periods of vulnerability may exist during in utero development, in childhood, adolescence, and early adulthood, and at older ages. Exposure assessment becomes particularly challenging over such extended intervals.