By Graeme Mount
In 1898, Spanish spies dependent in Montreal, Halifax, and Victoria monitored the USA struggle attempt opposed to their place of birth, whereas U.S. counter-intelligence officers watched the Spaniards. Neither the americans nor the Spaniards sought Canadian permission for those actions. Britain's enemies (and frequently America's enemies) have additionally been Canada's enemies. with out the heroic counter-intelligence of the mysterious Agent X, Irish americans on the flip of the century may need blasted British Columbia's legislature and the Esquimalt naval base the way in which they blasted the Welland Canal. in the course of global battle I, counter-intelligence did not cease German brokers who bombed the Windsor-Walkerville region in addition to the CPR bridge at the Maine-New Brunswick border. in the meantime, Canadian protection officers ran round in a nation of frantic frustration due to German "conspiracies" alongside the Ontario-New York kingdom border imagined through Sir Courtney bennett, British consul-general in long island urban. After the struggle, American moles in a Latvian submit workplace monitored mail among Canadian Communists and Moscow. within the thirties, a Finnish-Canadian clergyman spied on Sudbury's crimson Finns for the USA consultate inNorth Bay, and Hitler's consuls maintained surveillance of Canadian politicians and German dissidents in Canada. in the course of global warfare II, Canadian specialists intercepted the mail of envoys from Vichy-France, suspected of spying for Germany, and from Franco's Spain, suspected of spying for Japan. within the Sixties, the CIA not just saw Cubans in Canada, but in addition watched the placement in Quebec and used a Canadian diplomat to gather info on North Vietnam. a few of this background has merged from formerly missed and newly declassified records from eu, American, and Canadian data. those newly printed info express that Canada is an engaging position, either for what Canadians do somewhere else and for what foreigners do in Canada. additionally, as soon as readers have obvious the types of actions within which buddies have interaction, they are much less shocked at what enemies have performed.
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Extra resources for Canada's Enemies: Spies and Spying in the Peaceable Kingdom
Good British work and clumsiness on the part of too many Germans revealed that there were conspiracies involving no less a personality than Franz von Papen. ) Other conspirators included Arthur von Zimmermann at the Foreign Office in Berlin and Count Johann-Heinrich von Bernstorff, German ambassador to the United States. One recent author has tabulated four efforts at violence (in Montreal, Saint John, Sault Ste. Marie, and Cornwall) in 1914, five in 1915 (one in New Brunswick, two in the Windsor-Walkerville area of Ontario, one in Manitoba, and one in Vancouver).
A From the Boer War to World War I It was 1903, and Franz Bopp, consul-general of Imperial Germany at Montreal, was concerned. Rumours were circulating about an anarchist plot against Franz Joseph II, the elderly emperor of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. Bopp had good reasons for taking the threat seriously, and he sought the cooperation of Canadian authorities. Anarchists had killed the French president in 1894, the Spanish prime minister in 1897, Empress Elizabeth of Austria in 1898, King Humbert of Italy in 1900, and President McKinley in 1901.
Even in 1915, British and American authorities began to discover a genuine German conspiracy of sabotage inside the United States, but they did not know that Ambassador von Bernstorff himself was involved. Threats and Conspiracies during World War I 31 Gradually they learned that some of his subordinates were. German documents released after World War II reveal that von Papen actually recruited Germans in Chicago, St. Paul, Seattle, and Detroit. Armed and organized, these paramilitaries prepared to attack Canadian targets.