By G. M. Howe (auth.), Dr. Peter Boyle, Dr. Calum S. Muir, Prof. Dr. Ekkehard Grundmann (eds.)
The previous decade has visible the creation of many melanoma at lases. As with different ideas of descriptive epidemiology, those atlases have proved priceless in deciding upon parts for extra re sear~h making use of the equipment of analytical epidemiology. How ever, many of the melanoma atlases produceq to this point have did not professional vide a standard layout of presentation, which has restricted their comparison and annoyed in a wide degree any try and examine dangers throughout nationwide barriers, limitations which when it comes to environmental exposures can have little that means. during this quantity, many gains of melanoma atlases are offered and there are discussions at the parts the place strikes in the direction of standardization may significantly raise the software of the completed product. unlike topographic maps, i. e., representations of usual and man-made positive aspects at the floor of the earth, thematic maps be aware of showing the geographical incidence and varia tion of a unmarried phenomenon - the "theme" of the map. The hyperlink among thematic and base mapping is very robust because the themat ic details to be depicted is of larger price if displayed on a correct base map. extra, the thematic map ordinarily makes use of statis tical information that are often regarding inner administrative obstacles for enumeration. the key reason behind developing a thematic map is to find the spatial constitution of the subject matter of the map and to then relate the constitution to a couple features of the lower than mendacity environment.
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Extra resources for Cancer Mapping
1970). There are a variety of sources of data available to measure levels of cancer in community - autopsy series, hospital discharge data, hospital case series, cancer Recent Results in Cancer Research, Vol. Boyle mortality data as well as cancer incidence data. The latter are available through cancer registration schemes which have developed over the past 3 decades in a tremendous variety of locations - many parts of Europe, parts of Africa such as Dakar in Senegal, parts of Australia such as Queensland, New South Wales and New Zealand, Oceanic regions such as Hawaii, Kingston (Jamaica) and the Netherlands Antilles and parts of North America ranging from New Mexican Indians, through the population of Iowa state, to the Yukon and Northwest Territories, providing cancer incidence data from five continents for over 20 years (Doll et al.
The registry was founded in 1966 and is the only cancer registry in the Federal Republic in operation at the moment. A detailed account of the registry is given by Ziegler (1976). New registrations to the registry are provided by the following sources: 1. Notifications from practicing physicians, hospitals, and pathological and radiological institutes in the Saarland. These notifications are not compulsory, but only on a voluntary basis. 2. Death certificates. Roughly 10% of registrations are entered after comparison with causes of death data.
An example is the distribution of male cancer mortality due to trachea, bronchus, and lung (Fig. 2). Howe (1979) put more information on one map: not only the size of popUlation at risk is indicated, but also the distinction between urban and rural populations, as well as the statistical significance. Ranked rates are subdivided into classes. Various methods are available to achieve appropriate groupings. The number of classes should be defined with the aim of mapping a maximum amount of information.