By Gabriella Slomp (auth.)
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Additional resources for Carl Schmitt and the Politics of Hostility, Violence and Terror
At a theoretical level, Schmitt engages with the just war tradition and contrasts its depiction of the enemy as evil with the notion developed by jus publicum europaeum of the enemy as justus hostis. Against this background, in Concept of the Political Schmitt advances the deﬁnition of ‘enemy’ assumed by the friend/enemy principle. 21 It is worth reminding ourselves of the timeless characteristics of the concept of ‘enemy’ listed in Concept of the Political. Firstly, Schmitt distinguishes between the public enemy and a private adversary: ‘the enemy is hostis, not inimicus in the broader ␦ sense, ´ ς, ´ ς’.
As a result, it is almost embarrassing to take Schmitt’s allegation seriously. 30 Having said this, however, I believe that Schmitt understood something that has escaped the attention of many readers concerning the effect of Hobbes’s individualism on his theory of the state. E. Vaughan31 denounced Hobbes’s ‘extreme form of individualism: an individualism more uncompromising than that of Locke himself’32 and wondered how a number of separate and independent individuals could develop into a genuine political community.
6 In response to those who focus on the piety, goodness and generosity of the saint, Schmitt argues in a way that reminds us of Hobbes: he suggests that such qualities are superﬂuities because they do not explain the need for political order. 8 Schmitt reminds us that a ‘problematic human nature’ is assumed by a long list of writers, including Machiavelli, Hobbes, Bossuet, Fichte, and de Maistre. 9 A negative view of human nature is closely connected to the second central claim made above, namely that security is the main concern of political associations.