Download Chemical Bonds (Essential Chemistry) by Phillip Manning PDF

By Phillip Manning

Examines the character of the chemical bonds, answering primary questions on how they shape, how they're damaged, and the way they assist outline lifestyles as we all know it.

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The two numbers are arrived at differently, however. Ionization energy is a property of a ­stand-­alone atom in the gaseous state. Electronegativity is a property of an atom when it is joined to another atom in a chemical bond. Like valence, the concept of electronegativity has been around for a long time. But it was not an especially useful idea until 1932, when Linus Pauling developed a method to quantify the electronegativity of the elements. Pauling’s approach was to derive a dimensionless quantity based on bond dissociation energies.

They are called the halogens. Two of the elements most eager to react and exchange an electron are cesium, which is near the bottom left of the periodic table, and fluorine, at the top of the halogen group. Cesium wants to give up an electron and fluorine wants one badly. So, when cesium and fluorine are brought together, the result is what chemists like to call a vigorous reaction. Others might call it an explosion. The first two chapters of this book have examined the characteristics of ­stand-­alone atoms.

Coulomb’s Law The formation of ions explains how a poisonous gas can combine with a highly reactive metal to form the white, crystalline substance called table salt. The French physicist ­ Charles-­Augustin de Coulomb (1736–1806) played a big role in helping chemists to understand why ions behave so differently from atoms. 1). Coulomb charged the pith balls in the apparatus with electrostatic charges. The first charged ball was fixed in place; the second was attached to a horizontal bar suspended by a fiber or wire.

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