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Adapting to the increasing demands on natural resources given the changing climate. Many strategies are available for land use, energy needs, transportation, and other critical infrastructure choices that may reduce the severity of impacts or reverse them altogether. The opportunity for restoring coastal habitats is among the conservation options ‘Šȱ –Š—¢ȱ Œ˜ŠœŠ•ȱ œŠŽœȱ ‘ŠŸŽȱ œŽ•ŽŒŽȱ ’—ȱ ›ŽŒŽ—ȱ ¢ŽŠ›œȱ ǻ˜›“Šȱ Žȱ Š•ǯǰȱ ŘŖŗŖǼǯȱ Žœ˜›Š’˜—ȱ ŠŒ’Ÿ’’Žœȱ Š—ȱ ‘Žȱ ŽœŠ‹•’œ‘–Ž—ȱ ˜ȱ ‹žěŽ›œȱ Š—ȱ œŽ‹ŠŒ”œȱ ’—Œ›ŽŠœŽȱ ›Žœ’•’Ž—ŒŽȱ ˜ȱ Œ•’–ŠŽȱ Œ‘Š—Žȱ‹¢ȱ–Š—Š’—ȱŒž››Ž—ȱœ›Žœœ˜›œȱ‘Šȱ’—Ž›ŠŒȱ ’‘ȱŒ•’–ŠŽȱŒ‘Š—ŽȱŽěŽŒœDzȱ‘˜ ŽŸŽ›ǰȱ Š•‘˜ž‘ȱ‘ŽœŽȱŽě˜›œȱŒŠ—ȱ›Žœž•ȱ’—ȱ›ŽŒ˜ŸŽ›¢ȱ˜ȱœ˜–Žȱ™˜›’˜—œȱ˜ȱŒ˜ŠœŠ•ȱœ¢œŽ–œǰȱœž‹œŠ—’Š•ȱ•ŠœȱŠ—ȱ‹Š››’Ž›œȱ–Š¢ȱœ’••ȱœ•˜ ȱž••ȱ›ŽŒ˜ŸŽ›¢ȱǻŠ›˜œ˜ȱŽȱŠ•ǯǰȱŘŖŗŖǼǯȱ‘ŽȱœŒŠ•Žȱ˜ȱ œžŒ‘ȱŽě˜›œȱ ’••ȱ‹Žȱ’–™˜›Š—ȱŠœȱ™˜™ž•Š’˜—ȱŒ˜—’—žŽœȱ˜ȱ›˜ ȱŠ—ȱŽŸŽ•˜™–Ž—ȱ˜ŒŒž›œȱ Š•˜—ȱŒ˜Šœœǰȱœ˜ȱ‘Šȱ—ŽŠ’ŸŽȱ’–™ŠŒœȱŠ›Žȱ–’—’–’£ŽǯȱŠœ’—ȱ‘ŽȱŽ¡’œ’—ȱ™›Žœœž›Žœȱ˜—ȱ Œ˜ŠœŠ•ȱŽ—Ÿ’›˜—–Ž—œȱ˜ȱ’–™›˜ŸŽȱ‘Ž’›ȱ›Žœ’•’Ž—Œ¢ȱ’œȱ˜—Žȱ–Ž‘˜ȱ˜ȱŒ˜™’—ȱ ’‘ȱ‘ŽȱŠŸŽ›œŽȱŽěŽŒœȱ˜ȱŒ•’–ŠŽȱŒ‘Š—Žǯȱ 9 Chapter 2 Physical Climate Forces Key Findings f ‘ŽȱŒ˜Šœœȱ˜ȱ‘ŽȱǯǯȱŠ›Žȱ‘˜–Žȱ˜ȱ–Š—¢ȱ•Š›Žȱž›‹Š—ȱŒŽ—Ž›œȱŠ—ȱ’–™˜›Š—ȱ’—›Šœ›žŒž›ŽȱœžŒ‘ȱœŽŠ™˜›œǰȱŠ’›™˜›œǰȱ›Š—œ™˜›Š’˜—ȱ›˜žŽœǰȱ˜’•ȱ’–™˜›ȱŠ—ȱ›Žę—’—ȱ ŠŒ’•’’Žœǰȱ™˜ Ž›ȱ™•Š—œǰȱŠ—ȱ–’•’Š›¢ȱ‹ŠœŽœǯȱ••ȱŠ›ŽȱŸž•—Ž›Š‹•Žȱ˜ȱŸŠ›¢’—ȱŽ›ŽŽœȱ ˜ȱ’–™ŠŒœȱ˜ȱ•˜‹Š•ȱ Š›–’—ȱœžŒ‘ȱŠœȱœŽŠȬ•ŽŸŽ•ȱ›’œŽǰȱœ˜›–œǰȱŠ—ȱ̘˜’—ǯȱHigh ˜—ꍮ—ŒŽ.

F Š™’—ȱ˜ȱ‘ŽȱŒ‘Š—’—ȱŒ•’–ŠŽȱ ’••ȱ‹ŽȱŠȱŒ‘Š••Ž—Žȱ˜›ȱŒ˜ŠœŠ•ȱŽŒ˜—˜–’Žœȱ‘Šȱ Œ˜—›’‹žŽȱǞŞǯřȱ›’••’˜—ȱ˜ȱ‘Žȱ ȱ’—ȱŘŖŗŖȱŠ—ȱŽ™Ž—ȱ˜—ȱŒ˜ŠœŠ•ȱ•Š—˜›–œǰȱ ŠŽ›ȱ ›Žœ˜ž›ŒŽœǰȱ ŽœžŠ›’Žœǰȱ Š—ȱ ˜‘Ž›ȱ —Šž›Š•ȱ ›Žœ˜ž›ŒŽœȱ ˜ȱ œžœŠ’—ȱ ‘Ž–ǯȱ High ˜—ꍮ—ŒŽ. f ˜ŠœŠ•ȱœŠŽœȱŠ—ȱŒ˜––ž—’’Žœȱ ’••ȱ—ŽŽȱœ›ŠŽ’Žœȱ˜ȱŽ—Š‹•Žȱ‘Ž–ȱ˜ȱ–Š—ŠŽȱ current stressors and the confounding impacts of a changing climate to conserve, ™›˜ŽŒǰȱ Š—ȱ ›Žœ˜›Žȱ Œ˜ŠœŠ•ȱ ‘Š‹’Šœǯȱ Šœ’—ȱ ‘Žȱ Ž¡’œ’—ȱ ™›Žœœž›Žœȱ ˜—ȱ Œ˜ŠœŠ•ȱ Ž—Ÿ’›˜—–Ž—œȱ ˜ȱ ’–™›˜ŸŽȱ ‘Ž’›ȱ ›Žœ’•’Ž—Œ¢ȱ ’œȱ ˜—Žȱ –Ž‘˜ȱ ˜ȱ Œ˜™’—ȱ ’‘ȱ ‘Žȱ ŠŸŽ›œŽȱŽěŽŒœȱ˜ȱŒ•’–ŠŽȱŒ‘Š—Žǯȱ ’‘ȱ˜—ꍮ—ŒŽ.

F ˜ŠœŠ•ȱœŠŽœȱŠ—ȱŒ˜––ž—’’Žœȱ ’••ȱ—ŽŽȱœ›ŠŽ’Žœȱ˜ȱŽ—Š‹•Žȱ‘Ž–ȱ˜ȱ–Š—ŠŽȱ current stressors and the confounding impacts of a changing climate to conserve, ™›˜ŽŒǰȱ Š—ȱ ›Žœ˜›Žȱ Œ˜ŠœŠ•ȱ ‘Š‹’Šœǯȱ Šœ’—ȱ ‘Žȱ Ž¡’œ’—ȱ ™›Žœœž›Žœȱ ˜—ȱ Œ˜ŠœŠ•ȱ Ž—Ÿ’›˜—–Ž—œȱ ˜ȱ ’–™›˜ŸŽȱ ‘Ž’›ȱ ›Žœ’•’Ž—Œ¢ȱ ’œȱ ˜—Žȱ –Ž‘˜ȱ ˜ȱ Œ˜™’—ȱ ’‘ȱ ‘Žȱ ŠŸŽ›œŽȱŽěŽŒœȱ˜ȱŒ•’–ŠŽȱŒ‘Š—Žǯȱ ’‘ȱ˜—ꍮ—ŒŽ. 1 Scope and Purpose –™ŠŒœȱ˜—ȱŒ˜ŠœŠ•ȱœ¢œŽ–œȱŠ›ŽȱŠ–˜—ȱ‘Žȱ–˜œȱŒ˜œ•¢ȱŠ—ȱ–˜œȱŒŽ›Š’—ȱŒ˜—œŽšžŽ—ŒŽœȱ ˜ȱ Šȱ Š›–’—ȱ Œ•’–ŠŽȱ ǻ’Œ‘˜••œȱ Žȱ Š•ǯǰȱ ŘŖŖŝǼǯȱ ‘Žȱ Š›–’—ȱ Š–˜œ™‘Ž›Žȱ ’œȱ Ž¡™ŽŒŽȱ ˜ȱ accelerate sea-level rise as a result of the decline of glaciers and ice sheets and the ther–Š•ȱŽ¡™Š—œ’˜—ȱ˜ȱœŽŠȱ ŠŽ›ǯȱœȱ–ŽŠ—ȱœŽŠȱ•ŽŸŽ•ȱ›’œŽœǰȱŒ˜ŠœŠ•ȱœ‘˜›Ž•’—Žœȱ ’••ȱ›Ž›ŽŠȱŠ—ȱ •˜ Ȭ•¢’—ȱŠ›ŽŠœȱ ’••ȱŽ—ȱ˜ȱ‹Žȱ’—ž—ŠŽȱ–˜›Žȱ›ŽšžŽ—•¢ǰȱ’ȱ—˜ȱ™Ž›–Š—Ž—•¢ǰȱ‹¢ȱ‘Žȱ ŠŸŠ—Œ’—ȱœŽŠǯȱœȱŠ–˜œ™‘Ž›’ŒȱŽ–™Ž›Šž›Žȱ’—Œ›ŽŠœŽœȱŠ—ȱ›Š’—Š••ȱ™ŠĴŽ›—œȱŒ‘Š—Žǰȱœ˜’•ȱ –˜’œž›ŽȱŠ—ȱ›ž—˜ěȱ˜ȱ‘ŽȱŒ˜ŠœȱŠ›Žȱ•’”Ž•¢ȱ˜ȱ‹ŽȱŠ•Ž›Žǯȱ—ȱ’—Œ›ŽŠœŽȱ’—ȱ‘Žȱ’—Ž—œ’¢ȱ˜ȱ Œ•’–Š’ŒȱŽ¡›Ž–ŽœȱœžŒ‘ȱŠœȱœ˜›–œȱŠ—ȱ‘ŽŠȱœ™Ž••œǰȱŒ˜ž™•Žȱ ’‘ȱ˜‘Ž›ȱ’–™ŠŒœȱ˜ȱŒ•’–ŠŽȱ Œ‘Š—ŽȱŠ—ȱ‘ŽȱŽěŽŒœȱ˜ȱ‘ž–Š—ȱŽŸŽ•˜™–Ž—ǰȱŒ˜ž•ȱŠěŽŒȱ‘ŽȱœžœŠ’—Š‹’•’¢ȱ˜ȱ–Š—¢ȱ Ž¡’œ’—ȱŒ˜ŠœŠ•ȱŒ˜––ž—’’ŽœȱŠ—ȱ—Šž›Š•ȱ›Žœ˜ž›ŒŽœǯȱ‘’œȱ›Ž™˜›ȱŽ¡Š–’—Žœȱ‘Žȱ”—˜ —ȱŽŽŒœȱŠ—ȱ›Ž•Š’˜—œ‘’™œȱ˜ȱ‘ŽœŽȱŠ—ȱ˜‘Ž›ȱŒ•’–ŠŽȱŒ‘Š—ŽȱŸŠ›’Š‹•Žœȱ˜—ȱŒ˜Šœœȱ˜ȱ‘Žȱǯǯȱ ȱŠ•œ˜ȱŽœŒ›’‹Žœȱ‘˜ ȱœŽŸŽ›Š•ȱ–Š“˜›ȱœŽŒ˜›œȱ˜ȱ‘ŽȱǯǯȱŽŒ˜—˜–¢ȱŠ›Žȱ•’”Ž•¢ȱ˜ȱ‹ŽȱŠěŽŒŽȱ Šœȱ Ž••ȱŠœȱ‘Žȱ’ŸŽ›œ’¢ȱ˜ȱŠŠ™Š’˜—ȱ˜™’˜—œȱ‘ŠȱŠ›ŽȱŽ’‘Ž›ȱ‹Ž’—ȱŒ˜—œ’Ž›Žȱ˜›ȱŠ•›ŽŠ¢ȱ implemented in coastal regions.

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