By K. Wadekin
A desirable comparative examine of the way the rural event of the Soviet Bloc has formed and occasionally hindered improvement within the remainder of the communist international, this booklet examines the agrarian regulations of China, Mongolia, Vietnam, and Cuba, and offers an account of agricultural improvement in socialist economies which makes a speciality of either the ancient and modern features of this improvement.
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Extra info for Communist Agriculture: Farming in the Far East and Cuba
6, columns Rural Labor and Agricultural Labor). 6. Estimated agricultural labour) with only genuine peasants, their number being arrived at by subtracting the total number of workers in rural nonagricultural enterprises and the employees in the education, health, and administration sectors from the total rural manpower. Assessed per agricultural worker, the performances of the collectivized agriculture appear definitely not so bright. 4 and 14 kg respectively in 1976) (TJNJ, 1986:174–86). 77 million tonnes of chemical fertilizers, effective nutrients, employed in 1976, against 370,000 tonnes in 1957).
The budgeted State aids and the loans from the Agricultural Bank and Credit Co-operatives amount to less than 15 per 39 Communist agriculture: the Far East and Cuba cent of the circulating funds used by this industry (Cheng SL, 1987). 9 Thus, these industrial or commercial enterprises are representative of a true small rural capitalism, even if there are only a few dozen ‘great families’, realizing hundreds of thousands, even millions of yuans in turnover. There is a true financial market, and a labour market too (every day, in the market town of Jinxiang, dozens of young girls come down from the neighbouring mountains in search of jobs).
This stagnation, even regression, of the agricultural productivity of labour, in spite of the overall expansion of agriculture, clearly manifests the existence of a real involution. This involution is also characterized by a lack of diversification in the production, with the official policy stressing the priority for grain production all along (the 22 The Chinese model cultivated surface for industrial crops remained stagnant from 1957 to 1976, with only 9 per cent of the total cropped area) (TJNJ, 1986:174), and the fall of non-agricultural revenues in the peasants’ earnings.