By Richard C. Dorf
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Extra info for Computers, Software Engineering, and Digital Devices (The Electrical Engineering Handbook Third Edition)
Source: P. Graham, ‘‘Gates,’’ in Handbook of Modern Electronics and Electrical Engineering, C. , New York: Wiley-Interscience, 1986, p. 870. 9. The addition of T6 decreases the turn-on and turn-off times of T4. 8(c)]. 2 V at the input. 25 33 10 10 20 10 20 a See text for explanation of abbreviations. Source: P. Graham, ‘‘Gates,’’ in Handbook of Modern Electronics and Electrical Engineering, C. , New York: WileyInterscience, 1986, p. 871. With permission. 5-V limit set for all other TTL families.
This switching energy can be used to establish a relationship between both the switching speed and the power required to change the state of the device. Since the power required to switch the device is equal to the switching energy divided by the switching time, a shorter switching time will require more power. As an example, for a photonic device with an area of 100 mm2 and a switching energy of 1 fJ/mm2 to change states in 1 ps requires 100 mW of power instead of the 100 mW that would be required if the device were to switch at 1 ns.
All unused CMOS inputs should be tied either to VDD or VSS, whichever is appropriate for proper operation of the gate. This rule applies even to inputs of unused gates, not only to protect the inputs from possible static charge buildup, but to avoid unnecessary supply current drain. Floating gate inputs will cause all the FETs to be conducting, wasting power and heating the chip unnecessarily. 2. CMOS inputs should never be driven when the supply voltage VDD is off, since damage to the inputprotecting diodes could result.