By N. Underhill
Explores present debates round spiritual extremism as a way to appreciate and re-think the connections among terrorism, insurgency and kingdom failure. utilizing case reviews of Pakistan, Afghanistan and Iraq, she develops a greater figuring out of the underlying factors and stipulations precious for terrorism and insurgency to happen.
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Additional info for Countering Global Terrorism and Insurgency: Calculating the Risk of State Failure in Afghanistan, Pakistan and Iraq
Almost 80 percent of the countryside, including parts of Herat and Kandahar, eluded effective government control, and as well as that, an overwhelming majority of Afghans opposed the communist regime and chose, either actively or passively, to support the mujahideen. On several fronts the mujahideen expanded their influence and control and eventually established their own administrations throughout Afghanistan. The mujahideen made it almost impossible for the regime to maintain a system of local government outside major urban areas.
The final type of insurgency looked at here is the urban-cellular form. This type of insurgency is usually centred on and developed in urban areas within a specific town. In terms of organisational structure, it is generally organised around small, semi-autonomous cells. This has a negative impact on the success of these types of insurgency, however, as they often lack hierarchical political and military leadership structures, making them highly unstable. These types of insurgent groups tend to rely more heavily on terrorism as a tactic to counter their inherent weakness, which has a negative consequence in terms of limiting their ability to mobilise popular support.
As he moved against the perceived enemies in the PDPA, several rural areas rose in armed rebellion against the new government and by December 1979, party morale was crumbling as the insurgency continued to grow. 13 As the insurgency spread and the Afghan army began to crumble, the regime’s survival became increasingly dependent upon Soviet assistance. 15 With the extreme levels of mass revolt that they witnessed, the PDPA regime lost control over the mobilisation of society and lost many territories under its control to the opposition.