By Freda Adler, Jana Marie Grekul, William S. Laufer, Gerhard O. W. Mueller
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Additional resources for Criminology, Canadian edition
Criminologists are not voted into governments. Yet criminologists have served on a variety of federal commissions and have participated in studies dealing with problems of crime or criminal justice. But criminologists cannot dictate national or provincial crime-control policies. ” “The body of knowledge regarding crime as a social phenomenon. ” Criminologists come from a variety of backgrounds and disciplines but are united in their focus on the topics listed by Sutherland years ago. 3. What inﬂuences the ways in which laws are created?
The statistics present the amount of crime known to law enforcement agencies, but they do not reveal how many crimes have actually been committed. People do not report their victimization to the police for a variety of reasons, including the belief that the police can’t or won’t do anything to help, that the offender might seek revenge or reprisal, or a desire on the part of the victim to deal with the crime in his or her own way (such as forgetting it or seeking revenge). In this sense, UCR data are dependent on the reporting behaviour of the public.
Experiments The experiment is a technique used in the physical, biological, and social sciences. An investigator introduces a change into a process and makes measurements or observations in order to evaluate the effects of the change. Through experimentation, scientists test hypotheses about how two or more variables (factors that may change) are related. The basic model for an experiment involves changing one variable, keeping all other factors the same (controlling them, or holding them constant), and observing the effect of that change on another variable.