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By Prof. Harald zur Hausen (auth.)

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Zachau, H. : Chromatin. Ann. Rev. Biochem. 51,89-121 (1982). : Morphology of nucleolar chromatin in electron microscopic spread preparations. In: The Cell Nucleus, Vol. 11 . H. Busch and L. Rothblum, eds .. 143-176. Academic Press, New York (1982). , Rose, K. : Localization of RNA polymerase I in interphase cells and mitotic chromosomes by light and electron microscopic immunocytochemistry. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 81 , 1431-1435 (1984). , Rose. K . : Druginduced dispersal of transcribed rRNA genes and transcriptional products: lmmunolocalization and silver staining of different nucleolar components in rat cells treated with 5,6-dichloro-j3-Dribofuranosylbenzimidazole.

The complex binds to specific DNA sequences in the control region of hormone-regulated genes. The interaction of the complex with control sequences leads to increased gene expression NA 5 ~ Transcription ~ Transport ' Processing mANA ---- Translation New protein + Altered cell function Breakdown Control of Gene Activity by Steroid Hormones Whereas it has already been assumed for a long time that the binding of the hormone-receptor complex at specific sites in the chromatin regulates gene transcription, it was exceedingly difficult to identify such regulatory sequences and to elucidate their action.

Electron microscopic analysis of spread chromatin allows a definite decision to be made in this regard. ~. - Fig. 22 Electron microscopic immunolocalization of chromatin proteins. Both pictures show transcribed chromatin regions of lampbrush chromosomes after incubation with antibodies against histone H2B (upper picture) and RNA packing proteins (lower picture). The antibodies have been rendered visible by conjugation to colloidal gold particles (5 nm diameter) (black dots). Histones are located exclusively on the chromatin axis (upper picture), and the RNA packing proteins only on the developing RNP transcripts (lower picture).

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