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By Leibniz, G. W.; Parkinson, G. H. R. (trans.)

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Leiter’s naturalistic explanation makes the need for meaning an instrumental effect of the hedonic practical problem which ³⁸ All of these considerations are acknowledged fully by Leiter (2002). ³⁹ Leiter 2002: 256–63. See also Leiter 2003: 93–7. e. to be taken to have a blameable cause, because and only because we need to find some or other way to end the pain of suffering. But in section 28 Nietzsche presents the need for meaning as the reason, in a non-hedonic sense, why we cannot just live with our suffering, why merely accepting or putting up with suffering, agreeing to suffer, is for us a practical impossibility.

Nietzsche’s conception of a unity of the theoretical with the practical is found in his early unpublished writings on the philosophy of the Greeks—in the relatively finished text of 1873, Die Philosophie im tragischen Zeitalter der Griechen (Philosophy in the Tragic Age of the Greeks), and in the collection of notes from 1875 gathered under the title Wissenschaft und Weisheit im Kampfe (The Struggle between Science and Wisdom). 174), in terms of three features: 1. illogical generalizing and rushing towards final ends, 2.

While this is true, the challenge is to make naturalistic sense of the non-naturalistic representation, and this explanandum is not disposed of just by being redescribed as the content of a psychological state. Pursuing this task, Leiter claims that the ascetic ideal’s solution to the ‘curse of meaninglessness’ referred to in section 28 is to be understood in terms of the following explanatory elements: first, the claim of the First Essay that suffering produces ressentiment; second, the later claim (GM III 15) that relief from ressentiment is achieved by blame, which facilitates discharge, the effect of which is anaesthetic; and third, the role of the ascetic priest in redirecting blame by designating a new culprit, namely oneself.

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