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By Márcio Almeida

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The average of the Nkt factor is about 12 for Brazilian clays (Almeida, Marques and Baroni, 2010). 5 Stress history Several equations have been suggested in the literature to obtain OCR vs. depth profiles by means of piezocone tests. 30. , 2012). 2 Typical Nkt values for Brazilian soils (Danziger and Schnaid, 2000). 5 (below the 3 m crust) 1–2 Ibura, Recife 45–115 Port of Aracaju 25–45 aprox. 5) Notes Other piezocone tests carried out on site (below embankment): Alencar Jr. (1984); Rocha Filho and Alencar (1985) Characteristics of clays Ortigão (1980); Ortigão,Werneck and Lacerda (1983); Ortigão and Collet (1986) Piezocone tests Soares et al.

17. However, even perfect hypothetical sampling results in an inevitable relief in the stress state of the soil (Ladd and Lambe, 1963; Hight, 2001). The soil sample retrieval using a Shelby sampler with a stationary piston (NBR9820 – ABNT, 1997; ASTM D1587-08) requires special precautions such as the use of bentonite slurry in the borehole. 17 Variation of the stress states of a sample during sampling. 18 Procedure for extrusion and preparation of soft soil specimens in the laboratory: (A) cutting the sampler, (B) needle and steel wire used to separate the sample from the sampler (Baroni, 2010).

1. It is important to note that the strain and rupture development as well as stress paths in both in situ and laboratory tests differ from those in situ and should be considered in predictions of settlements and stability analysis. 2 shows the tests usually performed and the parameters estimated. 2, laboratory and in situ tests are complementary. 1 Advantages and disadvantages of in situ and laboratory tests applied to soft clays (Almeida, 1996). Type of test Advantages Laboratory Well-defined boundary conditions Controlled drainage conditions Known stress paths during test In situ Identifiable nature of the soil Soil tested in its natural environment Continuous measurement with depth (CPT, piezocone) Greater volume of tested soil Usually faster than laboratory test Disadvantages Disturbance in soils during sampling and molding Low representation of tested soil Under similar conditions it is generally more expensive than field tests Poorly defined boundary conditions, except for self-boring pressuremeter Unknown drainage conditions Unknown degree of disturbance Non-identified nature of soil (except percussion boreholes) it is common to conduct a cluster of boreholes in contiguous verticals (about 2 m apart), including laboratory and in situ tests, as presented at the end of the chapter.

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