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By Sarah A. Radcliffe

In Dilemmas of Difference Sarah A. Radcliffe explores the connection of rural indigenous ladies in Ecuador to the improvement guidelines and actors which are ostensibly there to aid ameliorate social and fiscal inequality. Radcliffe unearths that improvement policies’s lack of ability to acknowledge and reckon with the legacies of colonialism reinforces long-standing social hierarchies, thereby reproducing the very poverty and disempowerment they're there to resolve. This ineffectiveness effects from disasters to recognize the neighborhood population's variety and a scarcity of accounting for the advanced intersections of gender, race, ethnicity, classification, and geography. hence, tasks frequently fail to compare beneficiaries' wishes, convinced teams are made invisible, and indigenous girls develop into excluded from positions of authority. Drawing from a mixture of ethnographic fieldwork and postcolonial and social conception, Radcliffe facilities the views of indigenous girls to teach how they craft practices and epistemologies that critique useless improvement equipment, tell their political agendas, and form their strategic interventions in public coverage debates.
 

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Extra info for Dilemmas of Difference: Indigenous Women and the Limits of Postcolonial Development Policy

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Through the steady proÂ�cesses of dispossession and displacement of indigenous populations—Â�largely in the Andes—Â�women Â�were deprived of animals and land and excluded from decision-Â�making through the reservation of authority posts for men. After formal inÂ�deÂ�penÂ�dence in 1830, EcÂ�uaÂ�dor’s poÂ�litiÂ�cal economy perpetuated a racialized socio-Â�spatial distribution through which consistent routines of exclusion, discrimination, and privileges made indigenous embodiments “surplus” to core activities and statuses, yet whose spaces of abandonment Â�were tied into unequal power relations.

Male-Â�female difference remains intrinsic to postcolonial indigenous experience, as labor markets, technical assistance, expectations about productive and reproductive inputs, and authority continue to be strongly biased against female agency and toward nonindigenous norms, with women’s position often viewed as “more Indian” than men’s (de la Cadena 1995). Central to Latin American coloniality in this regard has been white(r) men’s sexual access to, and rape of, low-Â�income, largely rural, indigenous women, a proÂ�cess that has contributed to the emergence of a mixed-Â�race (mestizo in 18â•…â•…Introduction Spanish) and increasingly middle-Â�income, urban class group.

2. Tsáchila women sit outside their Â�house. Photograph by the author. construct a “solution” to development’s lacunae, no rallying articulation of identity and culture through which to overturn the status quo in a neat poÂ�litiÂ�cal reversal. 44 Prior to village-Â�based fieldwork, I spent many months working and talking with a poÂ�litiÂ�cally, ethnically, educationally, and institutionally diverse set of women, who held positions as ethnic movement leaders, elected women’s representatives, ngo workers, and civil servants (some of them indigenous women).

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