By Tony Cooke, Denis M. Persley, Susan House
Ailments of Fruit vegetation in Australia is the recent ordinary reference in utilized plant pathology in Australia overlaying very important ailments affecting the large variety of fruit and nut plants grown all through Australia. it truly is an important software for growers, horticulturists, crop specialists, study scientists, plant pathologists, quarantine officials, agribusiness representatives, pest administration group of workers, educators and scholars.
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The spores do not require free water for germination and germinate freely in relatively low humidities including moisture from morning dews, fog or condensate. Disease development is favoured by warm, dry and especially, cloudy conditions, which limit damage to the fungus by ultraviolet radiation. Humid, wet weather slows disease progress. Overwintering fruiting bodies called cleistothecia are produced late in the season, or when conditions become unfavourable. These appear as tiny, pinhead size, yellow-gold and later brown to black bodies within the mycelium.
Spore germination can occur in condensate formed on fruit after removal from cool rooms. Once established, Rhizopus can spread rapidly from fruit to fruit resulting in extensive ‘nests’ of diseased fruit. Management • Maintain strict hygiene in the orchard and packing shed. Remove rejected fruit before it becomes a source of inoculum. • Handle fruit carefully to minimise damage. Apply recommended postharvest fungicide treatments. • Cool fruit as soon as possible after harvest and store at correct temperatures.
Spores produced in spring are spread by wind and rain to infect young leaves during wet weather. Warm, wet, humid weather favours the disease. Importance The disease is usually of minor importance in wellmanaged pear orchards. Isolated outbreaks can cause severe losses. Management • Remove or destroy diseased leaves between seasons, because fallen leaves are a major means of fungal survival. • The spray program recommended for black spot adequately controls scald. ■ FLY SPECK OF APPLE Cause The fungus Schizothyrium pomi.