By H. Beaty, James Kirtley
From transportable CD drivers to heavy behemoths--all the basic evidence approximately electrical automobiles in a single finished reference It completely covers up-to-date traction functions, the most recent on solid-state motor-drive controllers, electric and mechanical parameters, requisites, shapes, functionality, security, and each measurement of motor made--from these used in moveable CDs to the cars required via heavy undefined. (20041101)
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Additional resources for Electric Motor Handbook
Assume an RMS voltage magnitude of Vt across each phase. 64) This is real (time-average) power crossing the air-gap of the machine. Positive slip implies rotor speed less than synchronous and positive airgap power (motor operation). Negative slip means rotor speed is higher than synchronous, negative air-gap power (from the rotor to the stator) and generator operation. 65) Note that since both Pag and s will always have the same sign, dissipated power is positive. The rest of this discussion is framed in terms of motor operation, but the conversion to generator operation is simple.
At any load point A, OA is the primary current, NA the secondary current, and AF the motor power input. The motor output power is AB, the torque×(synchronous speed) is AC, the secondary I2R loss is BC, primary I2R loss CD, and no-load copper loss plus core loss DF. The maximum power-factor point is P, located by drawing a tangent to the circle from O. The maximum output and maximum torque points are similarly located at Q and R by tangent lines parallel to NS and NT, respectively. The diameter of the circle is equal to the voltage divided by the standstill reactance or to the blocked-rotor current value on the assumption of zero resistance in both windings.
The circle diagram is convenient for visualizing overall performance but is too inaccurate for detailed calculations and design. The magnetizing current is not constant, but decreases with load because of the primary impedance drop. All of the circuit constants vary over the operating range due to magnetic saturation and skin effect. The equivalent circuit method predominates for analysis and design under steady-state conditions. The impedances can be adjusted to fit the conditions at each calculation point.