By Jason Shogren
Every determination approximately strength includes its expense and cost. the cost of fuel and the price of deciding to buy from overseas manufacturers; the cost of nuclear and hydroelectricity and the prices to our ecosystems; the cost of electrical energy from coal-fired crops and the associated fee to the atmosphere. Giving lifestyles to innovations, way of life alterations, geopolitical shifts, and issues in-between, strength economics is of excessive curiosity to Academia, enterprises and Governments.
For economists, power economics is considered one of 3 subdisciplines which, taken jointly, compose an monetary method of the exploitation and upkeep of average resources:
- energy economics, which makes a speciality of energy-related matters akin to renewable strength, hydropower, nuclear energy, and the political economic system of energy
- resource economics, which covers topics in land and water use, similar to mining, fisheries, agriculture, and forests
- environmental economics, which takes a broader view of normal assets via fiscal strategies corresponding to possibility, valuation, law, and distribution
Although the 3 are heavily related, they aren't frequently provided as an built-in whole. This Encyclopedia has performed simply that via unifying those fields into a high-quality and unique overview.
The simply reference paintings that codifies the relationships one of the 3 subdisciplines: strength economics, source economics and environmental economics. realizing those relationships simply turned simpler!
Nobel Prize profitable Editor-in-Chief (joint recipient 2007 Peace Prize), Jason Shogren, has tested very good staff paintings back, by means of coordinating and steering his Editorial Board to supply a cohesive paintings that courses the consumer seamlessly in the course of the various topics.
This paintings includes in equivalent components info from and approximately company, educational, and executive views and is meant to function a device for unifying and systematizing learn and research in company, universities, and government.
Read Online or Download Encyclopedia of Energy, Natural Resource, and Environmental Economics PDF
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Extra info for Encyclopedia of Energy, Natural Resource, and Environmental Economics
New York: Cambridge University Press. Weitzman M (1974) Prices vs. quantities. Review of Economic Studies 41: 477–491. World Trade Organization and United Nations Environment Programme (2009) Trade and Climate Change, in WTO-UNEP. Geneva: WTO Publications. ca – British Columbia Ministry of Finance (accessed 14 April 2011). fi – Finland Ministry of the Environment (accessed 14 April 2011). nl – Netherland, Ministry of Finance (accessed 14 April 2011). gov – South Africa: EIA Country Brief (accessed 14 April 2011).
Article 12 of the Kyoto Protocol further defines the important condition of additionality for CERs to be created under the CDM. According to this condition, CERs are created only for emission reductions that would not have occurred in the absence of the CDM project, what is currently called the Encyclopedia of Energy, Natural Resource and Environmental Economics CER A certified emission reduction is issued under the conditions of the CDM (article 12 of the Kyoto Protocol) and is equal to one metric ton of CO2 equivalent.
Greenhouse Gas Emissions. Cambridge, MA: MIT Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change. Metcalf GE and Reilly JM (2008) Policy options for controlling greenhouse gas emissions: Implications for agriculture. Choices 23: 34–37. Metcalf GE and Weisbach D (2009) The design of a carbon tax. Harvard Environmental Law Review 33: 499–556. Murray BC, Newell RG, and Pizer WA (2009) Balancing cost and emissions certainty: An allowance reserve for cap-and-trade. Review of Environmental Economics and Policy 3: 84–103.