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And wastes Renewable Energy Contributions to Total Primary Energy Supply in IEA Countries, 2002 Figure 7 Figure 8 Renewable Energy Contributions to Finnish Total Primary Energy Supply, 1973 to 2002 25 20 15 Combustible renew. and wastes 10 Hydro 0 1973 1975 1977 1979 1981 1983 1985 1987 1989 1991 1993 1995 1997 1999 2001 Source: Energy Balances of OECD Countries, IEA/OECD Paris, 2003. 3 200 times 6 times 60 Source: Renewable Energy Sources in Finland 2002, OPET Report 9, Organisation for the Promotion of Energy Technologies (OPET), 2002.

For the most part, these LLCs are wholly or majority-owned by municipalities, although they are profit-seeking ventures. Nearly 15% of district heating operations 41 are owned directly by the municipalities and 8% are public utility companies. District heating is subject to no ex ante regulation. Companies are free to set tariffs as they wish, although these prices are limited by competition from alternative heating systems, such as individual heating boilers and electric heating. Private consumers can complain about the tariffs or terms to the National Consumer Administration.

In order to expedite such a scenario, the Action Plan promotes the following government measures, which have been implemented: ‚óŹ Development and Commercialisation of Technology: The Action Plan cites the development and commercialisation of innovative technology as the most important long-term promotional measure. The Action Plan calls for a higher proportion of publicly-funded research to be spent on renewable technology development. It also states that when technologies have reached maturity, support for them should be reduced.

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