By Charles A.S. Hall
This authoritative yet hugely obtainable e-book offers the reader with a strong framework for knowing the severe position of the power go back on funding (EROI) within the survival and health of people, ecosystems, companies, economies and countries. progress and improvement are basic and ubiquitous approaches in any respect scales, from members to meals plants to nationwide economies. whereas we're all accustomed to the ideas of monetary progress and dwelling criteria as measured by means of gross family product (GDP), we frequently take with no consideration the strength use that underpins GDP and our expectancies for year-on-year progress. during this publication, you'll learn the way those measures of “progress” are thoroughly depending on the stability that may be accomplished among strength expenses (inputs) and profits. not anything is made or moved with no an strength surplus, and it's the EROI of obtainable strength resources greater than the other unmarried issue that determines the form of civilization.
Nearly all politics and economics suppose that coverage and marketplace forces are the levers upon which destiny results will hinge. although, this ebook offers many examples of historic and present occasions that may be defined even more essentially from an lively viewpoint. moreover, a destiny situation is built that provides a principal position to EROI in assessing the opportunity of governmental and personal tasks to alternative so-called renewable power assets for diminishing shares of fossil fuels. while affordable fossil fuels are not any longer to be had within the abundance had to masks financial difficulties and gear company as ordinary, it will likely be EROI greater than the plethora of “green” applied sciences that creates the boundary stipulations for a sustainable future.
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Additional resources for Energy Return on Investment: A Unifying Principle for Biology, Economics, and Sustainability
Society has gone to great lengths to isolate most of us physically and intellectually from the energy sources upon which our food, our comfort, our transportation, and our economy depend. It is convenient to ignore energy in part because many facts about it are uncomfortable to know or experience. To some degree this is changing as the world appears to be warming and the combustion of fossil fuels is largely held to blame. ” Well-established laws of physics and chemistry deﬁne and characterize the speciﬁcs of the role of energy in the natural world.
6 Types of Energy Energy also comes in many forms or types. , being stored in an elevated mass. “Kinetic” is the term we use for energy actually being used at a given moment: The kinetic energy of a body equals the mass times the square of its velocity: E ¼ 1=2 MV 2 This simple equation means that as you drive faster there is more and more damage that can occur if you crash into a solid object. Potential energy is stored energy, which might be water at an elevation, electrons in an unconnected battery, gasoline in a tank, and so on.
Once distribution systems are built, gas is an ideal fuel as it is easy to handle and very useful. Since oxidizing hydrogen releases more energy per unit carbon dioxide produced, its use would contribute less to climate change than other fossil fuels, at least if not much of it leaks from the wells and pipes (methane has a global warming potential of 28–84 times higher than carbon dioxide per molecule; Myhre et al. 2013; Howarth 2015). When natural gas is held in a tank some heavier fractions fall out as natural gas liquids, and these materials can be used either directly or as inputs to reﬁneries.