By George Ritzer
George Ritzer is among the top social and cultural commentators of the current day. during this crucial new e-book he considers a few of the major developments in modern social thought. integrated listed here are Ritzer's most up-to-date reflections at the makes use of and misuses of metatheory. in accordance with Ritzer, sociology is a multiparadigm technological know-how. the diversities and intensities of rivalries among paradigms are frequently very complicated for college kids or even for pro sociologists. This ebook seeks to discover a fashion out of the confusion by way of sketching out the lineaments of a brand new built-in sociological paradigm and demonstrates how this paradigm might be utilized. It exhibits a number of the ways that Ritzer has constructed explanation thought to make clear expert integration, the form of shopper tradition, hyperrationality and the kingdom of sociology this day.
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Additional info for Explorations in Social Theory: From Metatheorizing to Rationalization
It encompasses Marx’s philosophical anthropology, his philosophical presuppositions about the nature of human beings. Yet, as Marx’s work progressed, he used the philosophical concept less and less, although he retained its essential ideas. Barbalet (1983), for example, sees a shift as early as The German Ideology (Marx and Engels, 1845–6/1970) away from an essentialist conception of man (species being) and toward an empirical view of man in praxis; rather than referring to species being (with its bothersome combination of historical and ahistorical components15), Marx focuses on ‘real individuals’ in action.
Wagner and J. Berger’s (1985) differentiation among theoretical contexts: orienting strategies, unit theories, and theoretical research programs. Also to be included as a non-Kuhnian cognitive strategy is the ‘schools of thought approach’ (Sorokin, 1928; Martindale, 1960). 26 They are tied together by their common identity with a particular theoretical orientation. 27 These approaches have been criticized for their static character (Harvey, 1982) and they have led to an approach in which calls are made, and efforts undertaken, to develop a more dynamic approach to the underlying structure of sociological theory (Wiley, 1979; Wagner, 1984; Wagner and Berger, 1985).
They were able to develop and express only a limited number of 38 Part One Metatheorizing needs (Marx, 1857–8/1973: 398). The ability of people to think, their consciousness, was limited and amounted to little more than animal, ‘sheep-like’, consciousness (Marx and Engels, 1845–6/1970: 51). 12 Indeed, they had to act in order to acquire the food, clothing, and shelter they needed to survive (1845–6/1970: 48). The production13 of material life cannot be accomplished by isolated individuals, but requires cooperation with other people; in other words, production requires social relationships (Marx, 1857–8/1973: 84).