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By Maurice H. Francombe (Eds.)

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The boundary layer uniformity can be enhanced by increasing the gas velocity. This is typically achieved by lowering the pressure in the reactor from atmospheric to about 100 mbar. The uniformity can be further improved by rotating the wafer (by gas foil or direct mechanical means). In this way, the linear depletion that occurs longitudinally can be further averaged out. The transverse, parabolic, nonuniformity due to the sidewalls can only be lessened by making the tube and susceptor widths considerably larger EPITAXIAL FILM GROWTH AND CHARACTERIZATION 21 than the wafer.

Using Raman measurements a variation of approximately 26% was found in the nitrogen doping concentration over the center of the wafer. 3. 1. InGaAlP for Optoelectronic Applications High-performance visible light emitting diodes (LED) based on InGaA1P/GaAs are now in production [137, 138]. InGaA1P is also emerging as a material for 42 FERGUSON ET AL. vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL) development and applications [139]. 30 eV (539 nm) [140]. InGaA1P offers high radiative efficiencies in wavelength regions that cannot be realized with conventional ternary materials, such as GaA1As and GaAsR The growth of candela class high-brightness InGaA1P/GaAs LED has been accomplished by MOCVD in the orange-yellow [ 141 ], green [ 142], and yellow-green [ 143] wavelength regions.

Typical results obtained for InGaA1P light emitting diodes (LEDs) grown by MOCVD on a 400-ram platter that contains 42 50-mm wafers. The wavelength of the electroluminescence emission (at 20 mA) is shown for three randomly selected wafers for multiple devices as shown in the insert. FIG. 14. necessary but not sufficient condition for successful manufacturing, because, in practice, yield losses due to process variations and tolerances are also important. These occur because the final cost per wafer and device must be low enough to be competitive.

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