By Maurice H. Francombe, Stephen M. Rossnagel, Abraham Ulman
Frontiers of skinny movie know-how, quantity 28 makes a speciality of fresh advancements in these applied sciences which are severe to the profitable development, fabrication, and characterization of newly rising solid-state skinny movie machine architectures.Volume 28 is a condensed sampler of the guide to be used via specialist scientists, engineers, and scholars excited about the fabrics, layout, fabrication, diagnostics, and dimension points of those very important new units.
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Extra info for Frontiers of Thin Film Technology. (Volume 28)
X10-3 atm O Ga z=1/2 O As z=1/2 9 [ooi] [11o1 L Do ,_l ...... uJ t'lr "r I" 35 LATERAL Dio] Go z =0 9 ^, , : o YD,o] [ooi] ~ 0,0] 5 O rr" L'3 VERTICAL 0 50( . I 600 GROWTH .... ~ ' o 1 700 TEMPERATURE , D~o] I 800 STEP (a) D,o] STEP (b) ("C) FIG. 17. The MOCVD growth of GaAs using TMG and AsH 3 on different vicinal planes exhibits a large difference in growth rate . This indicates how the difference in the step-edge characteristics has a major effect on the growth kinetics. Another flux modification technique that has been widely used is atomic layer epitaxy (ALE).
5 Reflectance plot as a function of time showing the growth of different layers for calibration of growth rates and composition. Note the different growth rates for different MO sources and for heavily C-doped GaAs grown at slightly different temperatures (courtesy of Sandia National Laboratories). FIG. 12. using these techniques. Similar data have been obtained for the growth of GaAs/A1As Bragg reflector stacks by MOCVD . This group was also able to measure the A1 content of A1GaAs films and obtained a reproducibility of < 1% for a Bragg reflector optimized for 980 nm.
In both of these growths, the InxGal_xAs composition intentionally commenced outside lattice match conditions (5% indium rich and 5% gallium rich). Using ellipsometric feedback control of the composition, a bulk film with a composition within the lattice matching specification was achieved. 5. MANUFACTURINGISSUES The market for compound semiconductor devices has finally grown to the point where there are now several high volume commercial applications [91 ]. Much of the early research and development on III-V devices that established MBE and MOCVD as the dominant growth techniques were completed on relatively simple, single-wafer systems.