Download Geological Sciences (Geology: Landforms, Minerals, and by John P. Rafferty PDF

By John P. Rafferty

Defined as craggy, rocky, or glacial, between a number of alternative descriptors, the Earths geospherethat is, its stable foundationis topic to brilliant version. it's those variations that tell the examine of the geological sciences. This box contains not just the research of rocks, minerals, and landforms, but in addition that of glaciers, fossils, volcanoes, and different features of the Earths floor. This sweeping quantity examines many of the branches of the geological sciences, in addition to the equipment and tools utilized by geologists to procure actual documents of the planets geological background. Profiles of seminal earth scientists also are integrated.

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Extra resources for Geological Sciences (Geology: Landforms, Minerals, and Rocks)

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Shortly before the end of the century this assumption was negated by the discovery of radioactive elements that disintegrate spontaneously and release heat to Earth in the process. Concepts of Landform Evolution The scientific exploration of the American West following the end of the Civil War yielded much new information on the sculpture of the landscape by streams. In his reports on the Colorado River and Uinta Mountains (1875, 1876), John Wesley Powell explained how streams may come to flow across mountain ranges rather than detour around them.

Smith thus demonstrated two kinds of order in nature: order in the spatial arrangement of rock units and order in the succession of ancient forms of life. Smith’s principle of faunal sequence was another way of saying that there are discontinuities in the sequences of fossilized plants and animals. These discontinuities were interpreted as indicators of episodic destruction of life or as evidence for the incompleteness of the fossil record. Baron Georges Cuvier of France was one of the more distinguished members of a large group of naturalists who believed that paleontological discontinuities bore witness to sudden and widespread catastrophes.

Mineralogy As a discipline, mineralogy has had close historical ties with geology. Minerals as basic constituents of rocks and ore deposits are obviously an integral aspect of geology. The problems and techniques of mineralogy, however, are distinct in many respects from those of the rest of geology, with the result that mineralogy has grown to be a large, complex discipline in itself. 40 7 Geology 7 About 3,000 distinct mineral species are recognized, but relatively few are important in the kinds of rocks that are abundant in the outer part of Earth.

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