Download Glaciers, Sea Ice, and Ice Formation (Dynamic Earth) by John P Rafferty PDF

By John P Rafferty

The ice that many of us go along with wintry weather months and seasonal cooling is de facto just one shape that this flexible substance can take. As furnishings all year long in components world wide, specially within the Arctic and Antarctic, glaciers and sea ice are important to maintaining aquatic ecosystems and regulating ocean water temperature. Permafrost, a kind of flooring ice, dramatically impacts the infrastructure and agricultural output of a number of groups all over the world. the improvement of those various formations and the interaction among them and the surroundings are thoughtfully thought of during this interesting quantity.

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Additional info for Glaciers, Sea Ice, and Ice Formation (Dynamic Earth)

Example text

Heat loss to the air above (also designated ϕ) occurs by a variety of processes, including radiation and convection, but it may be characterized approximately by a bulk transfer coefficient (Hia ) times the difference between the surface temperature of the ice and the air temperature (Ts - Ta). 58 7 Ice in Lakes and Rivers 7 (In practice, the top surface of an ice layer is not at the air temperature but somewhere between the air temperature and the freezing point. 34 × 105 joules per kilogram), and t is the time since initial ice formation.

In many areas the terrain is characterized by relatively smooth, round hills and slopes with well-defined to poorly defined solifluction lobes or terraces. If the debris is blocky and angular and fine material is absent, the lobes are poorly developed or absent. Areas in which solifluction lobes are well formed lie almost entirely above or beyond the forest limit. In many areas the frost-rived debris contains few fine materials and little water and consists of angular fragments of well-jointed, resistant rock.

SURFACE MANIFESTATIONS OF PERMAFROST AND SEASONALLY FROZEN GROUND Many distinctive surface manifestations of permafrost exist in the Arctic and subarctic, including such geomorphic features as polygonal ground, thermokarst phenomena, and pingos. In addition to the above, there are many features caused in large part by frost action that are common in but not restricted to permafrost areas, 41 7 Glaciers, Sea Ice, and Ice Formation 7 such as solifluction (soil flowage) and frost-sorted patterned ground.

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