Download Japan: A Global Studies Handbook by Lucien Ellington PDF

By Lucien Ellington

Japan: a world reports instruction manual deals a pleasant advent to this important, historic nation. In a chain of sensible, readable essays, this identify explores Japan's island geography and its impact at the nation's background. Japan lines the "economic miracle" that used to be born within the ashes of worldwide warfare II and grew into an economic system seven instances the dimensions of China's—but at huge social cost.It examines Japan's vivid cultural traditions—from the eleventh century's the story of Genji to karaoke, sushi, and the "salary man." Japan entices readers to proceed their exploration by means of delivering an inviting selection of jumping-off issues: a timeline of eastern background; a mini-encyclopedia of important humans, locations, and occasions; and an annotated bibliography overlaying all elements of eastern society.

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After extensive meditation under the Bodhi, or wisdom, tree, Siddhartha became enlightened and spent the rest of his life bringing his teachings to a growing number of disciples. From Siddhartha’s evolution to Buddha, a world religion was born. The Four Noble Truths constitute the essence of Buddhist teachings, though they are now greatly augmented by an entire canon of theological literature. The first Truth is that life is suffering. To be human is to suffer, and tribulations such as pain and old age are impossible to avoid.

The Meiji leaders first had to establish their authority throughout Japan, which meant drastic governmental reform. By 1871 the Meiji government had transformed the old Tokugawa domains into new administrative units called prefectures. During the Tokugawa years, farmers were allowed to pay taxes in rice rather than money, and rates were based on annual harvests instead of land values. This ——Japan’s Geography and History——43 tax system made it impossible for the government to plan expenditures in advance.

The daimyo soon divided among themselves, and the most powerful of the five, Tokugawa Ieyasu, after winning the battle of Sekigahara near Kyoto in 1600, attained virtual mastery of Japan. Tokugawa, whose original power base was a huge fief that included Edo (modern Tokyo), by 1615 defeated his last opponents at Osaka castle. A competent military man and a prudent and painstaking administrator and politician, Ieyasu assumed the title of hereditary shogun in 1603 by claiming descent from Minamoto Yoritomo.

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