By Leonard R. Johnson PhD
This complete three-volume encyclopedia is a finished examine of the full digestive pathway, with approximately 500 centred articles. every one particular anatomical web site reminiscent of the esophagus, belly, liver, and pancreas is roofed in its personal topic quarter. The biology of gastroenterology is handled in components comparable to anatomy and improvement, mobile biology, and hormones, whereas scientific matters also are completely lined in sections similar to surgical procedure, melanoma, parasitology, and radiology and endoscopy.
The affiliate Editors comprise: David H. Alpers, Kim E. Barrett, John M. Carethers, Mark Feldman, Gregory J. Gores, Richard J. Grand, Martin F. Kagnoff, Rodger A. Liddle, Shelly Lu, James Lee Madara, Charles M. Mansbach II, Alexander R. Margulis, John A. Williams, Douglas W. Wilmore, and Jackie D. Wood.
This stellar reference paintings will attract educational and scientific gastroenterologists, nephrologists, endocrinologists, physiologists, hepatologists, in addition to basic clinical practitioners and nutritionists.
- Only entire paintings out there overlaying all facets of gastroenterology
- Contains over 475 articles starting from pediatrics to radiology, melanoma to nutrition
- Written to be available to medical and educational audiences
- Developed lower than the course of a extraordinary board of editors, with articles written via specialists of their field
- Numerous illustrations, together with colour figures, help and enlarge the item content
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Extra resources for Johnson Encyclopedia of Gastroenterology
The affected vertebral bodies are split sagittally into paired hemivertebrae, due to a failure of the fusion of the anterior arches of the vertebrae. Generally, these are asymptomatic and of no structural signi®cance. Other associated skeletal abnormalities include, among others, an abnormal narrowing of the adjusted interpedicular space in the lumbar spine, fusion of the adjacent vertebrae, hemivertebrae, and the presence of a bony connection between ribs. The ®ngers may seem short, with broad thumbs.
THERAPY FOR ALAGILLE SYNDROME Patients with AGS present signi®cant management challenges. Cholestasis is commonly profound. Bile ¯ow may be stimulated with the choleretic ursodeoxycholic acid, but in many patients the pruritus continues unabated. Care should be taken to keep the skin hydrated with emollients and ®ngernails should be trimmed. Therapy with antihistamines may provide some relief, but many patients require additional therapy with agents such as rifampin or naltrexone. Biliary diversion has been successful in a limited number of patients, but intractable pruritus continues to be an indication for transplantation in refractory patients.
The Notch pathway regulates cell fate determination in many different cell types throughout development. Approximately 50% of AGS patients have protein truncating (frameshift or nonsense) mutations. The mutations are distributed widely over the entire coding region. Fifty to 70% of mutations are de novo. Mutations in JAG1 are thought to cause disease by haploinsuf®ciency whereby there is a decrease in the amount of the normal protein. Although the AGS phenotype is highly variable, there is no apparent genotypeÀphenotype correlation.