By William C. Meadows
Winner, a decision awesome educational Book
For many Plains Indians, being a warrior and veteran has lengthy been the conventional pathway to male honor and standing. males and boys shaped army societies to have a good time victories in warfare, to accomplish group provider, and to organize younger males for his or her function as warriors and hunters. via protecting cultural varieties contained in track, dance, ritual, language, kinship, economics, naming, and different semireligious ceremonies, those societies have performed an enormous function in keeping Plains Indian tradition from the pre-reservation period till today.
In this e-book, Williams C. Meadows offers an in-depth ethnohistorical survey of Kiowa, Apache, and Comanche army societies, drawn from vast interviews with tribal elders and armed forces society participants, unpublished archival assets, and linguistic information. He examines their constitution, features, rituals, and martial symbols, displaying how they healthy inside better tribal corporations. And he explores how army societies, like powwows, became a special public layout for cultural and ethnic continuity.
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Extra resources for Kiowa, Apache, and Comanche Military Societies: Enduring Veterans, 1800 to the Present
The exact origins of the term, however, are unknown. For purposes of clarity, in this study the terms ‘‘military society,’’ ‘‘society,’’ and ‘‘sodality’’ are used synonymously. Thus Kiowa society (culture) and Kiowa societies (sodalities) are distinguishable by context. Perhaps the earliest mention of an organization resembling a North American military society is Louis Hennepin’s (1698 : 280; Abel 1939 : 187) 1680 description of a group near present-day St. Paul, Minnesota, who served as police by seizing the goods of individuals who had broken communal hunting laws as punishment.
Jacobs’s model illustrates that the ‘‘revival’’ of modiﬁed traditional practices served as an adaptive counterstrategy to cultural and religious extinction (Kracht 1989 : 13–14). James Slotkin’s (1975) model of how ‘‘nationalistic’’ movements form when a dominant society exerts acculturative pressures on smaller cultures is similar. Social conﬂict and competition generally occur when the subordinate group is expected to abandon indigenous customs in favor of those of the dominant group, resulting in discrimination by the dominant group, which often leads to a breakup or decline of indigenous social organization.
Several criteria distinguish the prereservation military societies of mobile Plains hunting and gathering groups from those of the Prairie and other areas and from other types of Plains Indian sodalities or voluntary associations. One of the most visible and perhaps overemphasized roles is policing large communal hunts. On the Plains, such duties were generally performed in one of four ways: (1) by a particular society or clan (the Mandan Black Mouths Society or the Iowa Elk Clan), (2) by a temporarily appointed portion of an individual society (Ponca), (3) by various societies in turn (Kiowa and Cheyenne), or (4) by a group of temporarily appointed distinguished men without associational afﬁliations (Pawnee, Kansa, Osage).