By John H. Lau
One-stop, state of the art advisor to turn chip applied sciences. you can now flip to a unmarried, all-encompassing reference for a realistic figuring out of the fast-developing box that is taking the electronics by means of typhoon. inexpensive turn Chip applied sciences, by way of John H. Lau, brings you on top of things at the fiscal, layout, fabrics, process,equipment, caliber, production, and reliability concerns concerning cost-effective turn chip applied sciences. This eye-opening evaluation tells you what you want to learn about employing turn chip applied sciences to direct chip attach(DCA), turn chip on board (FCOB), wafer point chip scale package deal (WLCSP), and plastic ball grid array (PBGA) package deal assemblies. you will discover turn chip problem-solving tools, and how you can opt for a cheap layout and trustworthy, high-yield production procedure in your interconnect platforms as you explore...
*IC developments and packaging expertise updates *Over 12 various wafer-bumping methods...more than a hundred lead-free solder alloys *Sequential increase PCB with microvias and via-in-pad *How to choose underfill fabrics *And a lot, even more!
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Extra info for Low Cost Flip Chip Technologies for DCA, WLCSP, and PBGA Assemblies
Assume an RMS voltage magnitude of Vt across each phase. 64) This is real (time-average) power crossing the air-gap of the machine. Positive slip implies rotor speed less than synchronous and positive airgap power (motor operation). Negative slip means rotor speed is higher than synchronous, negative air-gap power (from the rotor to the stator) and generator operation. 65) Note that since both Pag and s will always have the same sign, dissipated power is positive. The rest of this discussion is framed in terms of motor operation, but the conversion to generator operation is simple.
At any load point A, OA is the primary current, NA the secondary current, and AF the motor power input. The motor output power is AB, the torque×(synchronous speed) is AC, the secondary I2R loss is BC, primary I2R loss CD, and no-load copper loss plus core loss DF. The maximum power-factor point is P, located by drawing a tangent to the circle from O. The maximum output and maximum torque points are similarly located at Q and R by tangent lines parallel to NS and NT, respectively. The diameter of the circle is equal to the voltage divided by the standstill reactance or to the blocked-rotor current value on the assumption of zero resistance in both windings.
The circle diagram is convenient for visualizing overall performance but is too inaccurate for detailed calculations and design. The magnetizing current is not constant, but decreases with load because of the primary impedance drop. All of the circuit constants vary over the operating range due to magnetic saturation and skin effect. The equivalent circuit method predominates for analysis and design under steady-state conditions. The impedances can be adjusted to fit the conditions at each calculation point.