By Tim Mair, Tom Divers and Norm Ducharme (Eds.)
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(IARC Press) complete textual content of tumors within the worried approach. Illustrated with full-color slides, photos, and images. huge references. prior variation: c1997. For practitioners and researchers. Softcover.
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22). In particular, differentiation of small from large intestine is achieved and the wall thickness documented. When combined with other imaging modalities such as labeled granulocyte scintigraphy, ultrasonography is used to characterize individual areas of intestine in which there is scintigraphic evidence of inflammation. 23). 22 Transverse ultrasonograms of the (a) cranial, (b) mid-, (c) right ventral abdomen from an 11-year-old mare with chronic eosinophilic enteritis demonstrating that the large colon varies in thickness.
The author prefers to inflate the abdomen first. Abdominal distension should be adequate to prevent collapse of the abdominal wall during trocar insertion. The catheter used for insufflation is removed and the same site is re-used as the scope portal. The cannula with the sharp trocar should be inserted with a firm twisting motion, being careful to prevent excessive penetration of the abdominal wall. Directing the trocar in a slightly ventral direction prevents injury to the 3 sublumbar muscles and kidney.
Lower intra-abdominal inflation pressures translates to less pain and better cardiopulmonary function of the horse. Another consideration is that standing laparoscopy should be approached very cautiously in any horse in which diaphragmatic hernia may be a differential. The potential for creating a pneumothorax must be appreciated in such horses. It is also important to note that complete examination of all intra-abdominal viscera and surfaces cannot be achieved. It is an axiom oflaparoscopy that 'what you see, you see but what you don't, you don't'.