By Mohamed Hamid, Aristides Sismanis
Accomplished overview of the remedy of internal and heart ear sickness and the ensuing listening to and stability issues. Covers the medical functions of state of the art study, together with regenerative medication for internal ear sickness, internal ear perfusion remedies, vestibular rehabilitation for stability retraining, and using cochlear impants. Covers prognosis and administration of peripheral auditory and vestibular problems, relevant vestibular issues, issues of the facial nerve, and more. Read more...
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Additional info for Medical otology and neurotology: a clinical guide to auditory and vestibular disorders
36 In the ear this presumably would result in reduced strial function. It also is known that these peptides are vasoactive and inﬂuence the integrity of the blood–brain barrier, making the stria blood–labyrinth barrier a likely site of inﬂuence as well. Certainly other ion channels are at work in the inner ear and will be characterized by future research, as will the hormonal and genetic factors that control them. Nevertheless, current clinical and experimental otology research is helping to deﬁne the role of these channels and how their function is affected by various disease processes.
The ﬁbrocytes of the lateral wall are connected by gap junctions with the basal and intermediate cells of the stria, facilitating the movement of K+ ions from the perilymph to the intrastrial compartment. Tight junctions seal adjacent marginal cells and basal cells to prevent ion leakage between cells and preserve the ionic potentials. The endothelial cells of the stria blood vessels (BV) also are sealed by tight junctions to preserve the ion potentials within the stria. These endothelial cells also are connected by gap junctions with the intermediate cell-ﬁbrocyte complex.
For example, the genes KCNE1 and KCNQ1 each produce proteins (Isk and KvlQT1, respectively) that together make up the K+ channel on the apical membrane of the stria vascularis marginal cell. 2 A totally different gene is responsible for the K+ channel (KCNJ10) on the intrastrial surface of stria intermediate cells. 2 As we compare the critical ion channels (Fig. 3–3) with the known gene loci and protein defects (Fig. 3–4), a clearer picture of genetic hearing loss emerges. It has now been determined that gene CLDN14 (locus DFNB29) produces the tight junction protein claudin, gene TMPRSS3 (locus DFNB8/10) controls the epithelial Na+ channel, gene SCL26A4 (locus DFNB4/17) produces pendrin, a protein in the channel involved in transporting ClϪ, IϪ, and maybe even SO4, and gene BSND (Bartter’s syndrome) produces barttin, a component of the marginal and dark cell Cl– channel.