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By Stefan Stanciu

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However, ionic liquids that contain strongly coordinating anions, such as [BMIm] nitrate or acetate, interact sufficiently strong with CALB to dissolve the enzyme but also cause its deactivation [156,157]. Laccase‐based CLEAs were stabilized through the formation of a surrounding polymeric network made of chitosan and 3‐aminopropyltriethoxysilane (EPES‐lac). The average size of EPES‐lac particles was about 100 μm and with a spherical shape. The thermoresistance of the resulting enzyme polymer engineered structures of laccase CLEAs (EPES‐CLEA) were more than 30 times higher than that of free laccase and CLEAs at pH 3 and 40°C.

For example, an oriented immobilization of chloroperoxi‐ dase on iron magnetic nanoparticles was achieved by layer‐by‐layer controlled assembly through specific interactions of avidin‐biotin affinity binding [97]. 3. Chelation or metal binding Another method of reversible immobilization is also presented in chelation or metal binding, where metal salts or hydroxides on the surface of organic carriers are bound by coordination with nucleophilic groups on the matrix. The metal salt or hydroxide is precipitated on the support (chitin, alginate, silica‐based carriers) by heating or neutralization.

Magnetic nanoparticles are able to concentrate in a specific tissue or anatomical location. The results of clinical studies may help us determine the key substances for immobilization on magnetic nanoparticles with the aim to gain better control of four healing processes: migration and proliferation of fibroblasts, deposition of extracellular matrix, angiogenesis, and transformation (scarring). At the same time, the optical properties of magnetic nanoparticles are used as alternatives to organic dyes for imaging purposes and also provide enhanced target specificity, which makes them an attractive drug delivery vehicle with an advantage and possibility of monitored drug release.

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