By Gerald Steinacher
In Nazis at the Run, historian Gerald Steinacher presents the genuine tale of the way the Nazis escaped their destiny. Drawing on large learn in newly opened data, Steinacher not just unearths how Nazi struggle criminals escaped from justice on the finish of the second one international conflict, fleeing during the Tyrolean Alps to Italian seaports, yet he additionally highlights the most important roles performed by way of the crimson pass, the Vatican, and the key prone of the key powers. The publication takes a troublesome examine the foreign Committee of the pink pass, proving that id papers issued through the purple go made it attainable for millions of Nazis, battle criminals, and collaborators-including Adolf Eichmann and Josef Mengale-to slip in the course of the arms of justice and to discover safe haven in North and South the United States, Spain, and the close to East. Steinacher underscores the significance of the South Tyrol as a "ratline" from Germany to Italy and likewise unearths that many leaders of the Catholic Church-sometimes knowingly, different instances unwittingly-were excited by large-scale Nazi smuggling, frequently pushed via the terror of an coming near near communist takeover of Italy. ultimately, the booklet files how the Counter Intelligence Corps (the predecessor to the CIA) recruited former SS males to propose U.S. intelligence businesses and smuggled them out of Soviet-occupied parts of Austria and japanese Europe into Italy and directly to South the United States.
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Additional resources for Nazis on the Run: How Hitler's Henchmen Fled Justice
In the second half of 1945, UNRRA began major operations to repatriate millions of Displaced Persons. By the beginning of 1946, three-quarters of the original DPs in Europe had been returned to their own countries. But hundreds of thousands of refugees in Western Europe who had no intention of returning to their—now communist—homelands still existed. Original agreements reached by UNRRA with the Soviet Union decreed that all former Soviet citizens were to be handed over to Moscow—regardless of the will of the people in question.
Among them were such prominent figures as Ante Pavelić, the former head of state of Croatia. As mentioned already, Argentina was hardly the only desirable destination for fugitives. Spain or countries in the Near East or in North and South America—including the United States and Canada—appear to have been sought-after places to relocate. For example, in 1946, some 9,000 Ukrainians from the Waffen-SS Division Galizien found their way via Italy to Great Britain and from there to Canadian shores, passing themselves off as agricultural settlers eager to work on Canada’s vast tracts of farmland.
Evidence suggests that some figures in the Vatican used the organization as a tool in the fight against the common enemy, the rise of Soviet influence in Europe. A key player in this process was Alois Hudal, Rector of the College of Santa Maria dell’Anima in Rome (and a convinced Nationalist and admirer of Adolf Hitler). A bishop since 1933 and Assistant to the Papal Throne, Hudal enjoyed close personal ties to Pope Pius XII for many years. Although his influence waned at the Vatican and within the church hierarchy from 1943 onwards, he was still able to obtain special papal blessings for the Nazi aid programme.