By Viktor Boed
Amenities more and more depend upon automatic platforms to optimize their structures' platforms operation and decrease the prices of upkeep and administration. hence, facility managers and engineers needs to upward push to the problem of a brand new discipline-systems networking and integration-as increasingly more automated platforms develop into carried out.
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Additional info for Networking and Integration of Facilities Automation Systems
Made an attempt to develop standards that would closely meet their specific needs and requirements. Most, if not all, such protocols are based on a 1977 model for open systems interconnection or OSI published by the International Standards Organization (ISO). OSI is a model (not a protocol) adopted by the computer industry, which categorizes the activities essential for data transfer from one computer to another over the network. 0699/ch02/Frame Page 25 Friday, August 13, 1999 10:16 AM Basics of Network Communications 25 UNDERSTANDING THE OSI MODEL The OSI model defines network activities in seven layers.
The OSI model defines activities related to communication protocols in seven layers. The highest, the seventh layer, is interfaced to the application program, while the lowest, the 1st layer, is connected to the network media, such as twisted shielded pairs of wires or fiber optic cables. 1). , EIA or RS-232) or Ethernet communication for the systems, one has defined only the two lowest layers (first and second) of the OSI model. One would have done much better by defining the TCP/IP protocol, since TCP is on a transport (fourth) layer, and IP on a network (third) layer.
To make it more challenging, the entire communications industry is constantly evolving at speeds unprecedented in any other engineering discipline. This brings constant changes, leaving those of us who are trying to catch up with it behind. Furthermore, there is more than one solution to just about every communications or connectivity problem, providing for a wide variety of choices and options for implementation. ” Most facilities automation systems and networks were developed over time. Therefore, the issue of interoperability among already installed systems, current projects, and future upgrades is the most relevant to the end users.