By OECD - Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
This record communicates the result of a global seminar which reviewed fresh development within the box of pellet-clad interplay in gentle water reactor fuels. It additionally attracts a entire photograph of present realizing of proper phenomena and their effect at the nuclear gas rod, less than the widest attainable stipulations. cutting-edge wisdom is gifted for either uranium-oxide and mixed-oxide fuels.
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Additional resources for Pellet-Clad Interaction in Water Reactor Fuels: Seminar Proceedings, Aix-en-Provence, France, 9-11 March 2004
Since then in France, safety requirements impose that no fuel failure by PCI should occur during normal operation, as well as during incidental situations. In this particular context, the purpose of this paper is to present the PCI issues in France from the utility standpoint. First the paper gives an overview of the PCI Class 2 methodology currently in use to meet the safety requirements on EDF PWRs. The constraints due to the prevention from the PCI fuel failure risk are then examined. The paper ends with a discussion of the options currently investigated to take up the challenge of reducing the overall PCI constraints.
In 1974 an incipient crack was found in an un-failed fuel rod providing unequivocal evidence that the primary mechanism of PCI-induced cladding failures is ISCC . Mechanism PCI failures are normally induced following substantial power changes. The mechanism involves a synergistic combination of mechanical and chemical interactions between the UO2 fuel pellets (with iodine and possibly other fission products) and the zircaloy cladding. A technical basis for optimising power ascension procedures during reactor start-up can thus be developed using analytical modelling from fuel performance codes such as FALCON [5,6] with the implementation of an appropriate PCI failure model.
37 Figure 3. Finite-element PCI analysis in FALCON (r-T plane) Cladding Fuel Pellet Crack Typical results and discussion The basic characteristics of the power ramps for the five different cases are provided in Table 5. The cladding stresses are those corresponding to the base ramp case which used at a threshold of 20% and a ramp rate of 3%/hr from the threshold to full power. Each case represents a different set of parameters, including fuel pellet and cladding geometry, making it is difficult to discern trends related to burn-up as the linear powers are different.